WWC review of this study

Code-oriented instruction for kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties: A randomized field trial with paraeducator implementers.

Vadasy, P. F., Sanders, E. A., & Peyton, J. A. (2006). Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 508–528. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ742197

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
     examining 
    67
     Students
    , grade
    K
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards without reservations

Reviewed: September 2010

Alphabetics outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
index

Woodcock Reading Mastery Test Revised Normative Update (WRMT-R/NU): Word Reading Accuracy subtest

Sound Partners vs. business as usual

posttest

Kindergarten;
67 students

98

90

Yes

 
 
33
More Outcomes

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS): Nonsense Words Fluency subtest

Sound Partners vs. business as usual

posttest

Kindergarten;
67 students

5.94

3.35

No

 
 
19

Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE)

Sound Partners vs. business as usual

posttest

Kindergarten;
67 students

93

90

No

 
 
19

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS): Phoneme Segmentation Fluency subtest

Sound Partners vs. business as usual

posttest

Kindergarten;
67 students

8.58

4.65

No

 
 
17

Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP): Phonological Awareness subtest

Sound Partners vs. business as usual

posttest

Kindergarten;
67 students

88

85

No

 
 
11

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS): Letter Naming Fluency subtest

Sound Partners vs. business as usual

posttest

Kindergarten;
67 students

21

20

No

--
Comprehension outcomes—Substantively important positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
index

Woodcock Reading Mastery Test Revised (WRMT-R): Passage Comprehension subtest

Sound Partners vs. business as usual

posttest

Kindergarten;
67 students

89

87

No

 
 
11
Reading fluency outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
index

Passage Reading Rate

Sound Partners vs. business as usual

posttest

Kindergarten;
67 students

6

2

Yes

 
 
29

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • 25% English language learners

  • Female: 42%
    Male: 58%
  • Race
    Not specified
    87%

Setting

The study was conducted in 19 full-day kindergarten classrooms in 9 elementary schools.

Study sample

Seventy-five kindergarten students were recruited to participate in the study after having been identified by their teachers as needing additional reading instruction. Students also had to meet eligibility screens for the study by receiving low scores on a range of reading pretests. Thirty-nine students were randomly assigned to the intervention group, and 36 were assigned to the comparison group. Three students from the intervention group and five students from the comparison group dropped out of the study, yielding a final analysis sample of 36 students in the intervention group and 31 students in the comparison group. Outcomes were assessed immediately after the 18-week intervention period and again one year later, during the spring of the students’ first-grade year. However, the first-year follow-up results do not meet WWC evidence standards because the intervention is confounded with another mentoring program.

Intervention Group

Students in the intervention group received individualized reading instruction from a trained paraeducator for 30 minutes a day, four days per week, for 18 weeks. Paraeducators taught students using a series of 62 scripted lessons, with three to four activities per lesson. The first 20 minutes of tutoring focused on phonics activities from the scripted lessons. During the last 10 minutes of tutoring, the students read aloud from Bob Books®. Most children read independently, but some read the story with the tutors (either echo reading or partner reading). Students completed an average of 47 lessons during the 18 weeks.

Comparison Group

Students in the comparison group received their regular reading instruction and services.

Outcome descriptions

Outcomes were assessed on eight measures: (1) DIBELS Letter Name Fluency subtest, (2) CTOPP phonological awareness composite, (3) Word Reading Accuracy subtest of the WRMT-R/NU, (4) TOWRE, (5) DIBELS Phoneme Segmentation Fluency subtest, (6) DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency subtest, (7) an oral reading fluency test, and (8) the Passage Comprehension subtest of the WRMT-R/NU. For a more detailed description of these outcome measures, see Appendices A2.1– A2.3. The study also assessed outcomes on the Revised Spelling subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test–Revised (WRAT-R), but that outcome is excluded from this review because it falls outside the scope of the Beginning Reading review protocol.

Support for implementation

The 11 paraeducators in this study were hired as employees of the school district. All but four had prior tutoring experience, and five had prior experience working with kindergarten students. Their average education level was 14 years, and six tutors had more than a high school education.

 

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