WWC review of this study

The Enhanced Reading Opportunities Study: Early impact and implementation findings (NCEE report no. 2008-4015) [Xtreme Reading].

Kemple, J. J., Corrin, W., Nelson, E., Salinger, T., Herrmann, S., & Drummond, K. (2008). Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED499778

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
     examining 
    2,329
     Students
    , grade
    9

Reviewed: February 2021

No statistically significant positive
findings
Meets WWC standards without reservations
Comprehension outcomes—Indeterminate effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE): Comprehension subtest

Xtreme Reading vs. Business as usual

0 Months

Full sample;
2,329 students

90.20

89.70

No

--
More Outcomes

Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE): Vocabulary subtest

Xtreme Reading vs. Business as usual

0 Months

Full sample;
2,329 students

93.60

93.30

No

--
Show Supplemental Findings

Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Examination (GRADE): Reading Comprehension subtest

Xtreme Reading vs. Business as usual

0 Months

Cohort 1: 2005-2006 school year;
1,273 students

90.49

90.08

No

--

Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE): Vocabulary subtest

Xtreme Reading vs. Business as usual

0 Months

Cohort 2: 2006-2007 school year;
1,056 students

93.52

93.32

No

--

Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Examination (GRADE): Reading Comprehension subtest

Xtreme Reading vs. Business as usual

0 Months

Cohort 2: 2006-2007 school year;
1,056 students

89.96

89.97

No

--

Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE): Vocabulary subtest

Xtreme Reading vs. Business as usual

0 Months

Cohort 1: 2005-2006 school year ;
1,273 students

93.64

93.96

No

--
Literacy achievement outcomes—Indeterminate effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

State test scores English Language Arts (ELA)

Xtreme Reading vs. Business as usual

0 Months

Full sample, cohorts 1 and 2;
1,191 students

0.10

0.03

No

--

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • 49% Free or reduced price lunch

  • Female: 49%
    Male: 51%
  • Race
    Black
    44%
    Not specified
    39%
    White
    17%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic
    33%
    Not Hispanic
    67%

  • Suburban, Urban
    • B
    • A
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • I
    • H
    • J
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    • M
    • N
    • O
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • V
    • U
    • T
    • W
    • X
    • Z
    • Y
    • a
    • h
    • i
    • b
    • d
    • e
    • f
    • c
    • g
    • j
    • k
    • l
    • m
    • n
    • o
    • p
    • q
    • r
    • s
    • t
    • u
    • x
    • w
    • y

    Florida, Maryland, Nebraska, New York, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Virginia

Setting

The study was conducted in 10 school districts across nine states in the United States.

Study sample

Across the 17 high schools and both student cohorts, the analytic sample for comprehension outcomes included 2,329 ninth-grade students. The analytic sample for general literacy achievement included 1,191 of these students for whom scores on the English language arts state assessment were obtainable from school administrative records. Of the 2,329 students in the analytic sample for comprehension outcomes, 50% spoke another language besides English at home: 44% were African American, 17% were White, 6% were another race, and 33% identified as Hispanic; and 51% were male. Similar information about the composition of the analytic sample for the general literacy achievement domain was not available.

Intervention Group

Xtreme Reading is a supplemental literacy curriculum designed to improve the literacy skills of struggling students in grades 6 to 12. The curriculum is primarily designed to help students improve their vocabulary, decoding, fluency, and reading comprehension skills. The Xtreme Reading program was implemented as a yearlong supplemental course in place of a ninth-grade elective class and was offered in addition to students’ regular English language arts classes. The program was scheduled for a minimum of 225 minutes of classroom instruction per week via a 45-minute class every day or a 75- to 90-minute class meeting every other day. Within each participating high school, an experienced, full-time English language arts or social studies teacher volunteered and was subsequently trained to implement the Xtreme Reading program to both student cohorts in the study. This teacher then taught four Xtreme Reading classes with 12 to 15 students per class.

Comparison Group

Students in the comparison group received the standard English language arts instruction and continued their participation in a regularly scheduled elective class, such as career and technical education, art, physical education, health, or foreign language. They did not receive supplemental English language arts instruction.

Support for implementation

Within each high school assigned to Xtreme Reading, an experienced, full-time English language arts or social studies teacher volunteered to teach the program to both student cohorts. For the first year of the study, the 17 Xtreme Reading teachers received one 5-day summer training before the start of the study year, one 2-day booster training during the year, and three 2-day on-site coaching visits. Of the 17 teachers who volunteered to administer the Xtreme Reading program at the start of the first study year, seven were replaced by the end of the first year. For the second year of the study, newly recruited Xtreme Reading teachers attended a 2-day training immediately prior to a 3-day training for all Xtreme Reading teachers during the summer before the start of the 2006–07 school year. All Xtreme Reading teachers also received a 2-day booster training and three 2-day on-site coaching visits during the second study year. No Xtreme Reading teachers were replaced during the second study year. In both study years, district coordinators were invited to observe the trainings to become familiar with the program in case they had to provide technical assistance or other support to Xtreme Reading teachers during the study period.

In the case of multiple manuscripts that report on one study, the WWC selects one manuscript as the primary citation and lists other manuscripts that describe the study as additional sources.

  • Corrin, W., Somers, M.-A., Kemple, J., Nelson, E., & Sepanik, S. (2009). The Enhanced Reading Opportunities Study: Findings from the second year of implementation (NCEE 2009-4036). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

  • Somers, M. A., Corrin, W., Sepanik, S., Salinger, T., Levin, J., & Zmach, C. (2010). The Enhanced Reading Opportunities study final report: The impact of supplemental literacy courses for struggling ninth-grade readers [Analysis of Xtreme Reading] (NCEE 2010-4021). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

Reviewed: July 2010

No statistically significant positive
findings
Meets WWC standards without reservations
Comprehension outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE): Comprehension subtest

Reading Apprenticeship® vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Grade 9: Cohort 2;
1,115 students

90.43

89.05

No

--
More Outcomes

Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE): Comprehension subtest

Reading Apprenticeship® vs. Business as usual

End of school year posttest

Grade 9: Cohort 1;
1,140 students

89.88

88.94

No

--

Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE): Vocabulary subtest

Reading Apprenticeship® vs. Business as usual

End of school year posttest

Grade 9: Cohort 1;
1,140 students

93.33

92.85

No

--

Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE): Vocabulary subtest

Reading Apprenticeship® vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Grade 9: Cohort 2;
1,115 students

93.59

94.02

No

--

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • 47% Free or reduced price lunch

  • Female: 50%
    Male: 50%
  • Race
    Black
    41%
    White
    30%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic
    25%
    Not Hispanic
    75%

  • Urban

Setting

The study was conducted in 17 schools located in 10 school districts across the United States.

Study sample

The study is a randomized controlled trial that used a two-stage random assignment design. First, 34 eligible schools were randomly assigned to implement one of two supplemental literacy programs: 17 schools were assigned to Reading Apprenticeship® and 17 to Xtreme Reading. Second, in each of the 17 schools assigned to Reading Apprenticeship®, 9th-grade students were randomly assigned to Reading Apprenticeship® or to the control group. Eligible students were defined as those who were reading at least two years below grade level. The study includes two cohorts of 9th-grade students: Cohort 1 was formed in the 2005/06 school year and consisted of 686 ninth-grade students who received Reading Apprenticeship® and 454 ninth-grade students in the control group who did not. Cohort 2 was formed in the 2006/07 school year and consisted of 645 ninth-grade students who received Reading Apprenticeship® and 470 ninth-grade students in the control group who did not. Overall and differential attrition rates of student attrition were low for Cohort 1 (30% and 6%, respectively) and Cohort 2 (36% and 3%, respectively).

Intervention Group

The intervention group received the Reading Apprenticeship® Academic Literacy course as a supplemental intervention that replaced a 9th-grade elective class, rather than a core academic class. Therefore, students in the intervention group continued to attend their regular English language arts classes. Reading Apprenticeship® Academic Literacy includes a detailed curriculum that is guided by the concept of “flexible fidelity” (i.e., teachers have flexibility in how they implement the curriculum in their day-to-day activities). Students attended Reading Apprenticeship® classes for about 11 hours per month, on average. The study reported students’ outcomes after 7.5 to 9 months of program implementation.

Comparison Group

The control group received the standard instruction provided in the regular school curriculum and continued their participation in any regularly scheduled elective class (such as career/technical education, art, physical education, health, or foreign language).

Outcome descriptions

For both the pretest and posttest, students took the reading comprehension subtest of the Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE). For the posttest, students also took the GRADE vocabulary subtest. For a more detailed description of these outcome measures, see Appendix A2.

Support for implementation

Teachers took part in professional development activities prior to the start of the school year and on an ongoing basis throughout the school year. Training included one 5-day summer training institute as well as two 2-day booster sessions during the school year. They also received three 2-day coaching visits during the year and had access to a special online listserv.

In the case of multiple manuscripts that report on one study, the WWC selects one manuscript as the primary citation and lists other manuscripts that describe the study as additional sources.

  • Corrin, W., Somers, M., Kemple, J. J., Nelson, E., & Sepanik, S. (2008). The Enhanced Reading Opportunities Study: Findings from the second year of implementation (NCEE report no. 2009-4036). Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

 

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