WWC review of this study

Effects of a prereading intervention on the literacy and social skills of children.

Nelson, J. R., Stage, S. A., Epstein, M. H., & Pierce, C. D. (2005). Exceptional Children, 72(1), 29-45. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ754702

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
     examining 
    63
     Students
    , grade
    K
Meets WWC standards without reservations

Reviewed: June 2016

Study sample characteristics were not reported.
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards without reservations

Reviewed: June 2007

Alphabetics outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
index

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS): Letter Naming Fluency subtest

Stepping Stones to Literacy vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Kindergarten;
63 students

37.7

22

Yes

 
 
36
More Outcomes

Woodcock Reading Mastery Test Revised (WRMT–R): Word Identification subtest

Stepping Stones to Literacy vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Kindergarten;
63 students

104.8

94.3

Yes

 
 
35

Woodcock Reading Mastery Test Revised (WRMT-R): Word Attack subtest

Stepping Stones to Literacy vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Kindergarten;
63 students

105.3

96.2

Yes

 
 
31

Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP): Phonological Awareness subtest

Stepping Stones to Literacy vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Kindergarten;
63 students

96.1

90.4

No

 
 
19

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • 44% Free or reduced price lunch

  • Female: 25%
    Male: 75%
  • Race
    Asian
    2%
    Black
    14%
    White
    75%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic
    10%
    Not Hispanic
    90%
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    Midwest

Setting

The participating students attended 10 elementary schools in the Midwest.

Study sample

Participants were 84 kindergarten students (64 in the intervention group and 20 in the comparison group) from 27 classrooms. Students were randomly assigned to conditions. All students had behavior problems, which were identified based on high scores on a measure developed by Walker, Severson, & Gates (1995; as cited in Nelson, Stage, Epstein, & Pierce, 2005) to indicate risk for behavioral disorders. The second criterion for participating in the study was a low score on the DIBELS Letter Naming Fluency subtest. The analysis sample included 47 students in the intervention group and 16 students in the comparison group. For the analysis sample, the study reported that 75% of the participants were male students, and about 26% were ethnic minority students. In addition, about 44% of the sample qualified for the free/reduced lunch program.

Intervention Group

The intervention was implemented during tutoring sessions, which were a supplement to the regular curriculum used at the schools. According to reports by tutors and independent observers, the tutoring sessions were implemented with a high level of fidelity.

Comparison Group

No information was provided for the comparison group other than that this group did not receive SSL services. The study indicated that no attempt was made to change any of the teachers’ regular instructional practices in the classroom.

Outcome descriptions

Primary outcome measures included the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP): Phonological Awareness subtest, the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills: Letter Naming Fluency subtest, and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test–Revised: Word Identification and Word Attack subtests (see Appendix A2 for more detailed descriptions of outcome measures).

Support for implementation

Information on training of tutors was not reported in the study.

 

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