WWC review of this study

Long-term effects of the Positive Action program.

Flay, B. R., & Allred, C. G. (2003). American Journal of Healthy Behavior, 27 (1), 6–21. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ676774

  • Quasi-Experimental Design
     examining 
    24
     Schools
    , grades
    1-6
Meets WWC standards with reservations

Reviewed: February 2016

Study sample characteristics were not reported.
No statistically significant positive
findings
Meets WWC standards with reservations

Reviewed: April 2007

Academic achievement outcomes—Substantively important positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
index

Absentee rates

Positive Action vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Grades 1 -6;
36 students

10.79

12.36

No

--
More Outcomes

Florida Comprehensive Aptitude Test (FCAT)

Positive Action vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Grade 4;
36 students

290.9

278.4

No

--
Behavior outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
index

Violence rates

Positive Action vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Grades 1- 6;
36 students

3.83

12.11

No

 
 
27
More Outcomes

Suspensions rates

Positive Action vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Grades 1- 6;
36 students

2.71

4.09

No

--

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • Race
    Black
    25%
    White
    50%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic
    20%
    Not Hispanic
    80%
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    South

Setting

The participating schools were from one large Southeastern school district. The school district was characterized by a large number of school sites (about 65) that have implemented Positive Action for four or more years.

Study sample

The study included 36 elementary schools. About 62% of the students in the intervention group participated in the free or reduced-price lunch program compared with 67% in the comparison group. About half of the students were white (50.59% in the intervention group and 44.66% in the comparison group). About one-fourth of the students were African-American (24.61% in the intervention group and 28.48% in the comparison group). About one-fifth of the students were Hispanic (20.71% in the intervention group and 23.23% in the comparison group). Because schools in the intervention and comparison conditions were matched, there were no statistically significant differences in demographic characteristics between the two groups.

Intervention Group

The program consisted of the Positive Action curriculum and additional activities that involved school principals, parents, and community members. The components addressed school and classroom management, learning climate, and skills and knowledge related to core values.1

Comparison Group

The comparison schools were drawn from the same school district as the intervention schools and were matched on demographic characteristics. Comparison schools did not implement the Positive Action program.

Outcome descriptions

The study measures in the behavior domain included violence and suspensions rates. The study measures in the academic achievement domain included the Florida Comprehensive Aptitude Test (FCAT) and grade retention rates. (See Appendices A2.1 and A2.2 for more detailed descriptions of outcome measures.)

Support for implementation

No information on teacher training was provided.

 

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