WWC review of this study

San Francisco Bay Area KIPP schools: A study of early implementation and achievement. Final report.

Woodworth, K. R., David, J. L., Guha, R., Wang, H., & Lopez-Torkos, A. (2008). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.

  • Quasi-Experimental Design
     examining 
    2,725
     Students
    , grades
    5-8

Reviewed: February 2018

No statistically significant positive
findings
Meets WWC standards with reservations
General Mathematics Achievement outcomes—Indeterminate effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
ESSA
rating

California Standards Test: Mathematics

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Grade: 5; Combined schools A, B, and C; 2004 cohort.;
884 students

342.27

301.83

No

 
 
21
More Outcomes

California Standards Test: Mathematics

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Grade: 5; Combined schools A, B, and C; 2003 cohort.;
1,841 students

323.99

297.36

No

 
 
19

California Standards Test: Mathematics

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Grade: 6; Combined schools A, B, and C;
907 students

351.44

312.09

No

 
 
19
Literacy achievement outcomes—Indeterminate effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
ESSA
rating

California Standards Test English Language Arts (CST-ELA)

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Grade: 6; Schools A, B, and C, combined;
907 students

338.74

314.12

No

 
 
15
More Outcomes

California Standards Test English Language Arts (CST-ELA)

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Grade: 5; Combined schools A, B, and C. 2004 cohort.;
884 students

328.41

313.75

No

 
 
14

California Standards Test English Language Arts (CST-ELA)

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Grade: 5; Combined Schools A, B, and C; 2003 cohort;
1,841 students

323.22

317.59

No

 
 
5

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • 17% English language learners

  • 80% Free or reduced price lunch

  • Female: 54%
    Male: 46%
  • Race
    Black
    69%
    Not specified
    32%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic
    19%
    Not Hispanic
    81%

  • Urban
    • B
    • A
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • I
    • H
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • P
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • V
    • U
    • T
    • W
    • X
    • Z
    • Y
    • a
    • h
    • i
    • b
    • d
    • e
    • f
    • c
    • g
    • j
    • k
    • l
    • m
    • n
    • o
    • p
    • q
    • r
    • s
    • t
    • u
    • x
    • w
    • y

    California

Setting

The study was conducted in two school districts in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. Three Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) schools were included in the intervention group in the analysis. The two districts that these three schools belonged to were kept anonymous for the impact analysis section of the study.

Study sample

There were 263 fifth grade KIPP students included in the analytic sample. On average 11% were Latino, 78% were African American, 8% were English learners, 14% were special education students, 81% were eligible for free or reduced-price lunches, and 49% were female. The average age in months of these students was 123.67. The fifth grade comparison group students had similar demographic characteristics, as these characteristics were used in the propensity score matching process. The sixth grade students included in the analytic sample were broadly similar to the fifth grade students in terms of demographic characteristics. At School A, 26 sixth graders were included in the analysis. On average 19% were Latino, 73% were African American, 15% were English learners, 4% were special education students, 81% were eligible for free or reduced-price lunches, 62% were female, and the average starting age in months was 122.94. At School B, 25 sixth graders were included in the analysis. On average 44% were Latino, 36% were African American, 44% were English learners, 8% were special education students, 84% were eligible for free or reduced-price lunches, 52% were female, and the average starting age in months was 123.62. At School C, 19 sixth graders were included in the analysis. On average 16% were Latino, 68% were African American, 16% were English learners, 5% were special education students, 74% were eligible for free or reduced-price lunches, 58% were female, and the average starting age in months was 123.95. The sixth grade comparison group students had similar demographic characteristics, as these characteristics were used in the propensity score matching process.

Intervention Group

The intervention consisted of one year of attendance at a KIPP school in the Bay Area in California. Only students who attended the full year were included in the treatment sample. Each KIPP school adheres to a set of five principals: "Choice and commitment" highlights that students and parents choose to attend a KIPP school and follow its program. "High expectations" are maintained for each student through a system of rewards and consequences for behavior. KIPP schools have "more time" than other schools, with school days lasting at least 9 hours and Saturday school during the summer and at least 85 minutes daily is spent on ELA and mathematics. KIPP school leaders have the "power to lead" meaning that they have total control over their budgets and personnel. Students at KIPP schools are supposed to have "focus on results" by performing well on standardized tests and preparing for high school and college. Teachers joining KIPP schools in the sample generally came from highly selective colleges, were alternatively certified, and had a median of 3 years of classroom experience.

Comparison Group

Students in the comparison group experienced business-as-usual instruction at other schools in the district. Students who attended a KIPP school but transferred to another school in the district are excluded from the comparison group.

Support for implementation

The Bay Area KIPP schools raise between $400,000 and $700,000 each year to cover the gap between operating costs and the money they receive from state and local funds. The KIPP Foundation provides support by helping with teacher recruitment, fundraising, and other logistics. KIPP school leaders have substantial control over teacher hiring and their schools in general.

Reviewed: January 2018

At least one finding shows moderate evidence of effectiveness
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards with reservations
English language arts achievement outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
ESSA
rating

California Standards Test English/Language Arts (CST-ELA)- scaled score

Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Aggregated sample; Grade 6;
810 students

339.85

313.33

Yes

 
 
17
 
More Outcomes

California Standards Test English/Language Arts (CST-ELA)- scaled score

Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Aggregated sample; grade 5;
2,725 students

325.47

316.39

Yes

 
 
8
 
Show Supplemental Findings

California Standards Test English/Language Arts (CST-ELA)- scaled score

Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) vs. Business as usual

0 Years

Aggregated sample; Grades 5 and 6;
3,535 students

328.49

315.68

Yes

 
 
11
General Mathematics Achievement outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
ESSA
rating

California's State Standardized Assessment in Mathematics

Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Aggregated sample; Grade 5;
2,725 students

331.91

298.76

Yes

 
 
21
 
More Outcomes

California's State Standardized Assessment in Mathematics

Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Aggregated sample; Grade 6;
810 students

349.91

311.29

Yes

 
 
19
 

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • 12% English language learners

  • 78% Free or reduced price lunch

  • Female: 53%
    Male: 47%
  • Race
    Black
    75%
    Not specified
    25%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic
    13%
    Not Hispanic
    87%

  • Urban
    • B
    • A
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • I
    • H
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • P
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • V
    • U
    • T
    • W
    • X
    • Z
    • Y
    • a
    • h
    • i
    • b
    • d
    • e
    • f
    • c
    • g
    • j
    • k
    • l
    • m
    • n
    • o
    • p
    • q
    • r
    • s
    • t
    • u
    • x
    • w
    • y

    California

Setting

The study was conducted in two unnamed school districts in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. Three KIPP schools were included in the intervention group in the analysis.

Study sample

The study used a matched-student quasi-experimental design, where the intervention group was comprised of students at five KIPP middle schools, and the comparison group was a sample of students matched on baseline reading and math test scores; gender, race, special education, limited English proficiency, and free or reduced-price lunch status; and whether the student repeated a grade in the baseline year. There were 263 fifth-grade KIPP students included in the analytic sample. On average, 11% were Latino, 78% were African American, 8% were English learners, 14% were special education students, 81% were eligible for free or reduced-price lunches, and 49% were female. The average age in years of these students was 10.3. Among the 810 sixth-grade students (70 KIPP students and 740 comparison students) included in the analytic sample, 26% were Latino, 56% were African American, 28% were English learners, 7% were special education students, 86% were eligible for free or reduced-price lunches, and 59% were female.

Intervention Group

The intervention consisted of 1 year of attendance at one of three KIPP schools in the Bay Area in California. Only students who attended the full year were included in the intervention group sample. Each KIPP school adheres to a set of five principals: “Choice and commitment” highlights that students and parents choose to attend a KIPP school and follow its program. “High expectations” are maintained for each student through a system of rewards and consequences for behavior. KIPP schools have “more time” than other schools, with school days lasting at least 9 hours and Saturday school during the summer, and at least 85 minutes daily is spent on English language arts and mathematics. KIPP school leaders have the “power to lead” meaning that they have total control over their budgets and personnel. Students at KIPP schools are supposed to have “focus on results” by performing well on standardized tests and preparing for high school and college. Teachers joining KIPP schools in the sample generally came from highly selective colleges, were alternatively certified, and had a median of 3 years of classroom experience. The sixth-grade analysis includes students who joined one of the three study schools during their sixth-grade year.

Comparison Group

Students in the comparison group experienced business-as-usual instruction at other schools in the district. Students who attended a KIPP school but transferred to another school in the district are excluded from the comparison group.

Support for implementation

The Bay Area KIPP schools raise between $400,000 and $700,000 each year to cover the gap between operating costs and the money they receive from state and local funds. The KIPP Foundation provides support by helping with teacher recruitment, fundraising, and other logistics. KIPP school leaders have substantial control over teacher hiring and their schools in general.

Reviewed: November 2008

At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards with reservations
General Mathematics Achievement outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
ESSA
rating

5th grade math score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Attendance at a non-KIPP public school in the same district

Posttest

School C 5th graders: Cohort 2004;
175 students

374.69

301.31

Yes

 
 
37
More Outcomes

5th grade math score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Attendance at a non-KIPP public school in the same district

Posttest

School C 5th graders: Cohort 2003;
581 students

336.13

294.84

Yes

 
 
26

5th grade math score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

Posttest

School B 5th graders: Cohort 2004;
215 students

335.05

294.58

Yes

 
 
20

5th grade math score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

Posttest

School A 5th graders: Cohort 2003;
369 students

316.10

290.58

Yes

 
 
17

5th grade math score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

Posttest

School A 5th graders: Cohort 2004;
221 students

314.66

289.74

No

 
 
14

5th grade math score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

Posttest

School B 5th graders: Cohort 2003;
891 students

305.53

290.89

No

 
 
11

4th grade math score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

Posttest

School A 5th graders: Cohort 2004;
221 students

293.25

292.37

No

--

4th grade math score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Attendance at a non-KIPP public school in the same district

Posttest

School C 5th graders: Cohort 2003;
581 students

303.43

302.54

No

--

4th grade math score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

Posttest

School B 5th graders: Cohort 2004;
215 students

297.66

297.80

No

--

4th grade math score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Attendance at a non-KIPP public school in the same district

Posttest

School C 5th graders: Cohort 2004;
175 students

299.21

298.81

No

--

4th grade math score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

Posttest

School A 5th graders: Cohort 2003;
369 students

302.80

303.76

No

--

4th grade math score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

Posttest

School B 5th graders: Cohort 2003;
891 students

297.87

299.85

No

--
Reading achievement outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
ESSA
rating

5th grade English Language Arts (ELA) score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Attendance at a non-KIPP public school in the same district

Posttest

School C 5th graders: Cohort 2004;
175 students

346.97

318.10

Yes

 
 
26
More Outcomes

5th grade English Language Arts (ELA) score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Attendance at a non-KIPP public school in the same district

Posttest

School C 5th graders: Cohort 2003;
581 students

333.63

313.89

Yes

 
 
17

5th grade English Language Arts (ELA) score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

Posttest

School A 5th graders: Cohort 2004;
221 students

314.00

305.30

No

--

5th grade English Language Arts (ELA) score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

Posttest

School B 5th graders: Cohort 2004;
215 students

323.26

312.81

No

--

5th grade English Language Arts (ELA) score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

Posttest

School B 5th graders: Cohort 2003;
891 students

321.69

318.32

No

--

4th grade English Language Arts (ELA) score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Attendance at a non-KIPP public school in the same district

Posttest

School C 5th graders: Cohort 2003;
581 students

319.04

318.39

No

--

4th grade English Language Arts (ELA) score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

Posttest

School A 5th graders: Cohort 2004;
221 students

299.30

299.31

No

--

4th grade English Language Arts (ELA) score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

Posttest

School B 5th graders: Cohort 2003;
891 students

312.86

313.84

No

--

4th grade English Language Arts (ELA) score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Attendance at a non-KIPP public school in the same district

Posttest

School C 5th graders: Cohort 2004;
175 students

312.26

313.27

No

--

5th grade English Language Arts (ELA) score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

Posttest

School A 5th graders: Cohort 2003;
369 students

308.50

310.05

No

--

4th grade English Language Arts (ELA) score

San Francisco Bay Area Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) Schools vs. Business as usual

Posttest

School B 5th graders: Cohort 2004;
215 students

309.85

311.73

No

--

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • 16% English language learners

  • 57% Free or reduced price lunch

  • Female: 52%
    Male: 48%
  • Race
    Asian
    13%
    Black
    40%
    White
    4%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic
    35%
    Not Hispanic
    65%

  • Urban
    • B
    • A
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • I
    • H
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • P
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • V
    • U
    • T
    • W
    • X
    • Z
    • Y
    • a
    • h
    • i
    • b
    • d
    • e
    • f
    • c
    • g
    • j
    • k
    • l
    • m
    • n
    • o
    • p
    • q
    • r
    • s
    • t
    • u
    • x
    • w
    • y

    California
 

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