This study took place in six elementary schools in four states: Kentucky (two suburban
schools), Virginia (one urban school), Washington (one urban school), and Wyoming (one rural
and one suburban school).
Second- and fourth-grade teachers were randomly assigned within schools to the intervention
using Scott Foresman–Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics. The baseline sample included
35 teachers (18 intervention and 17 comparison) and 742 students (389 intervention and 353
comparison). Of the 35 study teachers, 19 taught second grade (10 intervention and nine
comparison) and 16 taught fourth grade (eight intervention and eight comparison). The analysis
samples included 35 teachers (18 intervention and 17 comparison). The TerraNova CTBS
Basic Multiple Assessment Plus (Math Computation) analysis sample included 491 students
(264 intervention and 227 comparison) whereas the TerraNova CTBS Basic Multiple Assessment
(Math Total) analysis sample included 624 students (347 intervention and 277 comparison).
About one-third of participating students were minorities. At two of the six participating
schools, more than 90% of students were eligible for free or reduced-price meals. The percentage
of students eligible for free or reduced-price meals at the other four schools was
similar to the national average of 37%.
Students in the intervention group used the 2004 Scott Foresman–Addison Wesley Elementary
Mathematics curriculum during the 2004–05 school year. The teachers in the intervention
group were implementing the intervention curriculum for the first time. The study authors
reported that teachers covered 70% of the curriculum on average.
Students in the comparison group used five different comprehensive math curricula. These
curricula are not identified in the study, but the study authors report that the comparison curricula
covered the same content as Scott Foresman–Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics.
The study authors reported that teachers covered 75% of the curricula on average.
The primary outcome measure was the CTBS, Basic Multiple Assessment Plus test. The
authors describe the TerraNova CTBS as a reliable, standardized test consisting of multiplechoice,
constructed response, and computational problems. According to the authors, it offers
broad coverage of mathematics content in most textbooks and reflects NCTM standards.
The assessment provides two overall scores: the TerraNova CTBS Basic Multiple Assessment
(Math Total) and TerraNova CTBS Basic Multiple Assessment Plus (Math Computation) Total.
Normal curve equivalent scores were used in the analysis. For a more detailed description of
these outcome measures, see Appendix B.
Support for implementation
Teachers in the intervention group met with a Scott Foresman–Addison Wesley Elementary
Mathematics professional trainer for approximately 4 hours prior to implementing the curriculum
in their classes. In the initial training session, the trainer described the key components
of the curriculum, reviewed the materials provided, offered examples of when to use certain
materials, and provided an overview of the math technology available. Two follow-up sessions,
approximately 2 hours each, were offered. The first follow-up session occurred 4–8 weeks
after teachers began implementation. The second follow-up session was provided to five of
the six participating schools and occurred 10–18 weeks after implementation.