WWC review of this study

Improving reading fluency and comprehension in elementary students using Read Naturally.

Arvans, R. (2010). Dissertation Abstracts International, 71(01B), 74-649. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED513836

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
     examining 
    82
     Students
    , grades
    2-4
No statistically significant positive
findings
Meets WWC standards without reservations

Reviewed: July 2013

Comprehension outcomes—Indeterminate effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
index

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III)

Read Naturally® vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Grades 2-4;
82 students

93.46

92.44

No

--
More Outcomes

Expressive Vocabulary Test- First Edition (EVT)

Read Naturally® vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Grades 2-4;
82 students

90.58

90.84

No

--
Show Supplemental Findings

Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III): Passage Comprehension subtest

Read Naturally® vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Grades 2-4;
82 students

87.24

86.26

No

--
Reading achievement outcomes—Indeterminate effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
index

Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III): Summary Scores

Read Naturally® vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Grades 2-4;
82 students

94.82

93.09

No

--
Reading fluency outcomes—Indeterminate effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
index

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS): Oral Reading Fluency subtest

Read Naturally® vs. business as usual

Posttest

Grades 2-4;
82 students

66.71

61.98

No

--

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • Female: 43%
    Male: 57%
  • Race
    Black
    68%
    Not specified
    5%
    White
    27%
    • B
    • A
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • I
    • H
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • P
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • V
    • U
    • T
    • W
    • X
    • Z
    • Y
    • a
    • h
    • i
    • b
    • d
    • e
    • f
    • c
    • g
    • j
    • k
    • l
    • m
    • n
    • o
    • p
    • q
    • r
    • s
    • t
    • u
    • x
    • w
    • y

    Midwest

Setting

The study was conducted in one elementary school in a medium-sized city in the Midwest.

Study sample

Students in grades 2–4 in the participating school were eligible if they performed below benchmark on the DIBELS assessment administered at the beginning of the school year. After obtaining parental consent, students were paired based on pretest scores, grade, race, and gender, and then randomly assigned to either the Read Naturally® group or the comparison group. The analysis sample included 82 students: 39 in the Read Naturally® group and 43 in the comparison group. Across the three grades, the study included 23 second graders, 26 third graders, and 33 fourth graders. Fifty-seven percent of the students were male; 68% were African American, 27% were White, and 5% were of mixed race. Sixty-two percent of students were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch. The study did not specify the number of classrooms included in the analysis.

Intervention Group

Intervention students used Read Naturally® Software Edition for 30–45 minutes each day, 5 days a week, for 8 weeks. All Read Naturally® sessions were conducted by graduate or undergraduate research assistants. Students first selected one of 12 stories at their reading level, and then read along to key words by clicking on the words and hearing the computer pronounce the word and read its definition. Students then wrote a prediction of what would happen in the story based on the picture, key words, and title of the story. Students then completed a 1-minute reading of the passage, observed by a research assistant or the author, who noted words that the student found difficult. They then practiced the passage while listening to a recording of it being read, and then practiced it independently. To pass a story, the student needed to read a specified number of words during the 1-minute period, make no more than three errors, read with good expression, and answer all of the questions correctly. This was done out loud in the presence of a research assistant or the author. After passing, they then moved on to the next story. On some occasions, Read Naturally® was used in place of the student’s normal language arts instruction, at the discretion of the teacher.

Comparison Group

Comparison group students received the normal reading instruction used in their classroom. Some comparison group students were exposed to Read Naturally® during the study period if their teachers thought it was appropriate. However, comparison group students used Read Naturally® an average of less than 2 minutes per week, compared with an average of 72 minutes per week for students in the Read Naturally® condition. The Read Naturally® intervention was available to comparison group students after the intervention students finished the program.

Outcome descriptions

Eligible outcomes included the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency subtest; the EVT, First Edition; the PPVT-III; and three subtests from the WJ-III Cognitive and Achievement batteries: Letter-Word Identification, Passage Comprehension, and Word Attack, as well as a composite score combining these three subtests. For a more detailed description of these outcome measures, see Appendix B. Findings for the composite WJ-III measure can be found in Appendix C.4. Three subtest findings from the WJ-III test can be found in Appendices D.1 and D.2.

Support for implementation

The study did not describe any provider training or support for implementation.

Reviewed: March 2013

Study sample characteristics were not reported.
 

Your export should download shortly as a zip archive.

This download will include data files for study and findings review data and a data dictionary.

Connect With the WWC

newsflash icon contact icon facebook icon twitter icon
loading
back to top