WWC review of this study

Emergent literacy skills and training time uniquely predict variability in responses to phonemic awareness training in disadvantaged kindergarteners.

Hecht, S. A., & Close, L. (2002). Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 82(2), 93–115. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ656259

  • Quasi-Experimental Design
     examining 
    76
     Students
    , grade
    K
Meets WWC standards with reservations

Reviewed: June 2016

Study sample characteristics were not reported.
Does not meet WWC standards

Reviewed: February 2014

Study sample characteristics were not reported.
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards with reservations

Reviewed: July 2007

Alphabetics outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
index

Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT): Spelling subtest with phonemic representation scoring

Waterford Early Reading Program vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Kindergarten;
76 students

25.57

8.09

Yes

 
 
37
More Outcomes

Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP): Phoneme Segmenting subtest

Waterford Early Reading Program vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Kindergarten;
76 students

7.58

1.53

Yes

 
 
36

Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP): Phoneme Blending subtest

Waterford Early Reading Program vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Kindergarten;
76 students

9.53

4.24

Yes

 
 
34

Woodcock-Johnson Revised (WJ-R): Letter-Word Identification subtest

Waterford Early Reading Program vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Kindergarten;
76 students

3.54

0.77

Yes

 
 
34

Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP): Sound Matching subtest

Waterford Early Reading Program vs. business as usual

Posttest

Kindergarten;
76 students

10.91

6.27

Yes

 
 
33

Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP): Phoneme Elision subtest

Waterford Early Reading Program vs. business as usual

Posttest

Kindergarten;
76 students

4.71

2.82

Yes

 
 
23

Concepts About Print Test

Waterford Early Reading Program vs. business as usual

Posttest

Kindergarten;
76 students

8.58

9.01

No

--

Letter Sound Knowledge

Waterford Early Reading Program vs. business as usual

Posttest

Kindergarten;
76 students

19.09

22.55

No

-15
 
 

Letter name knowledge

Waterford Early Reading Program vs. business as usual

Posttest

Kindergarten;
76 students

21.58

24.65

Yes

-26
 
 
Comprehension outcomes—Indeterminate effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
index

Stanford-Binet (4th ed): Vocabulary subtest

Waterford Early Reading Program vs. Business as usual

Posttest

Kindergarten;
76 students

16.91

16.58

No

--

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


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    Ohio

Setting

The study took place in six inner city or rural public schools in Ohio.

Study sample

The study began with 140 full-day, at-risk Kindergarten students who were randomly selected from six schools. Students from four schools who received the Waterford Early Reading Program™ were matched to students in two schools who did not receive the program. Students were pretested in the fall and posttested in the spring of the same school year. Because of mobility and absences, 64 students attrited from the study. The final analysis sample included 76 students. The mean age of students was five years and seven months. The majority of students were eligible to receive free/reduced lunch. The majority of students in the schools came from low socio-economic status and African-American families.

Intervention Group

Students received the computer-assisted instruction of Waterford Early Reading Program™–Level One (WERP–1) during their normal classroom lessons for six months. The program focused on phonological awareness skills, letter knowledge, print concepts, and oral language skills. Students worked on the Waterford multimedia computer on their own for 15 minutes each session. A teacher management system was used to track daily time use.

Comparison Group

Students in the comparison group received their regular reading curriculum and were not exposed to the Waterford Early Reading Program™.

Outcome descriptions

Nine outcomes were assessed in the alphabetics domain including the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Process (Phonemic Segmenting, Phonemic Blending, Elision, and Sound Matching subtests), the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement (the Letter Word Identification subtest), the Wide Range Achievement Test (the Spelling subtest with Phonemic Representation scoring), the Concepts About Print Test, the Letter Name Knowledge and Letter Sound Knowledge measures, and the Stanford-Binet: Fourth Edition Vocabulary subtest. The study also used a letter writing task from the Spelling subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test, but this test was outside the domains specified by the Beginning Reading protocol (see Appendices A2.1–2.2 for more detailed descriptions of outcome measures).

Support for implementation

Information about teacher training was not provided in the study.

In the case of multiple manuscripts that report on one study, the WWC selects one manuscript as the primary citation and lists other manuscripts that describe the study as additional sources.

  • Hecht, S. A. (2000). Waterford Early Reading program in Ohio: An evaluation. (Available from the Waterford Institute, Inc., 55 West 900 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84101)

 

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