WWC review of this study

Doubling graduation rates: Three-year effects of CUNY’s Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) for developmental education students.

Scrivener, S., Weiss, M. J., Ratledge, A., Rudd, T., Sommo, C., & Fresques, H. (2015). New York: MDRC. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED558511.pdf. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED558511

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
     examining 
    896
     Students
    , grade
    PS

Reviewed: August 2019

At least one finding shows strong evidence of effectiveness
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards without reservations
Access and enrollment outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

% Enrolled at any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

1 Semester

Full sample;
896 students

96.70

94.20

No

--
More Outcomes

Enrolled in four-year institution

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

6 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

25.10

17.30

Yes

 
 
11
 
Show Supplemental Findings

% Enrolled at any CUNY College

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

1 Semester

Full sample;
896 students

95.80

85.20

Yes

 
 
30

% Enrolled at any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

2 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

91.80

81.60

Yes

 
 
21

% Enrolled at any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

3 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

77.30

70.20

Yes

 
 
9

% Enrolled at any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

4 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

71.20

62.90

Yes

 
 
9

% Enrolled at any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

5 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

61.90

55.30

No

--

% Enrolled at any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

6 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

51.20

47.40

No

--
Attainment outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

6 Years

Full sample;
896 students

51.90

40.40

Yes

 
 
11
 
More Outcomes
Show Supplemental Findings

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

3 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

2.90

1.10

No

--

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

3 Years

Male;
340 students

37.30

18.20

Yes

 
 
22

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

3 Years

Earned a high school diploma at baseline;
661 students

43.10

22.50

Yes

 
 
22

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

6 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

40.10

21.80

Yes

 
 
20

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

3 Years

Female;
555 students

41.60

24.30

Yes

 
 
19

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

5 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

29.50

15.30

Yes

 
 
19

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

7 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

42.00

26.30

Yes

 
 
17

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

8 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

45.20

29.90

Yes

 
 
16

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

3 Years

Did not earn a high school diploma at baseline;
235 students

31.30

19.70

No

--

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

4 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

14.70

8.70

Yes

 
 
14

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

9 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

46.60

32.40

Yes

 
 
14

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

10 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

48.20

36.40

Yes

 
 
12

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

6 Years

Female;
555 students

54.70

43.30

Yes

 
 
11

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

6 Years

Earned a high school diploma at baseline;
661 students

53.70

42.20

Yes

 
 
11

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

11 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

49.70

38.20

Yes

 
 
11

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

6 Years

Male;
340 students

45.10

36.20

No

--

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

6 Years

Did not earn a high school diploma at baseline;
235 students

40.60

35.40

No

--

Bachelor's or graduate degree

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

6 Years

Full sample;
896 students

16.70

16.20

No

--

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

1 Semester

Full sample;
896 students

0.00

0.00

Yes

--

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

2 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

0.20

0.00

No

--
Credit accumulation and persistence outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Number of Sessions Enrolled

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

3 Years

Full sample;
896 students

6.57

5.38

Yes

 
 
15
 
More Outcomes

Credits earned

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

3 Years

Full sample;
896 students

42.89

35.18

Yes

 
 
11
 
Show Supplemental Findings

College-level credits earned

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

4 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

33.24

26.91

Yes

 
 
12

College-level credits earned

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

2 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

17.47

14.59

Yes

 
 
11

College-level credits earned

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

3 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

25.85

21.34

Yes

 
 
11

College-level credits earned

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

5 Semesters

Full sample;
896 students

38.59

31.55

Yes

 
 
11

College-level credits earned

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

1 Semester

Full sample;
896 students

8.49

7.56

Yes

 
 
7

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • Female: 62%
    Male: 38%
  • Race
    Asian
    8%
    Black
    34%
    Not specified
    5%
    White
    10%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic
    44%
    Not Hispanic
    56%

  • Urban
    • B
    • A
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • I
    • H
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • P
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • V
    • U
    • T
    • W
    • X
    • Z
    • Y
    • a
    • h
    • i
    • b
    • d
    • e
    • f
    • c
    • g
    • j
    • k
    • l
    • m
    • n
    • o
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    • q
    • r
    • s
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    • u
    • x
    • w
    • y

    New York

Setting

The study was conducted at three CUNY community colleges: Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC), Kingsborough Community College (KCC), and LaGuardia Community College (LGCC). Students were originally randomly assigned to the study in 2010 and were followed for six years.

Study sample

Among the 896 students in the evaluation sample, 38 percent were male and 62 percent were female. At baseline, 57 percent of students were age 19 or younger but the average age of students was 21.5 years, and 44 percent of students were Hispanic, 10 percent were White, 34 percent were Black, 8 percent were Asian or Pacific Islander, and 5 percent fell into the "Other" category. Moreover, 60 percent of students were incoming freshmen, 88 percent received a Pell Grant, and at least 87 percent of students had a developmental need in one or two classes (developmental need was unknown for 11 percent of students).

Intervention Group

The ASAP Intervention is a three-year program provides wraparound supports to students: it does not aim to alter classroom instruction. ASAP has four primary components: 1. Requirements and Messages: Students are required to attend college full time and are strongly encouraged to take developmental courses early and graduate within three years. 2. Student Services: In their first year, students received advisement from an ASAP adviser at least twice per month (average: 38 meetings per student during that time), support from an ASAP career and employment services staff member at least once per semester (average: nine meetings during that time), and one hour per week of tutoring from ASAP staff for each developmental course taken (tutoring was also required when students' GPA fell below 2.0) (average: 24 sessions during that time). 3. Course Enrollment: Students enroll in blocked or linked courses in their first year (i.e., multiple courses offered back-to-back or that have connected content and keep ASAP students together in the same courses). Students can also register for courses early, and enroll in an ASAP seminar during the first three semesters which covers topics such as student skills and goal setting. 4. Financial Supports: Students receive a tuition waiver that covers the gap between financial aid and college tuition and fees (an average of $719 per semester among the small percentage of students who received the waiver). Students also receive free public transportation for subway and bus travel (Metro Cards, which cost an average of $112 per month by the end of the third year of the study) and free use of textbooks (worth approximately $270 per semester). In addition, ASAP provided voluntary services to students, including access to a social work intern, a $500 per semester ASAP Transfer Scholarship to complete degrees at CUNY four-year colleges, and participation in a ASAP Student Leadership Program to develop leadership and public speaking skills. Neither of these offerings were widely used by students.

Comparison Group

Unlike ASAP, students in the comparison condition were not required to enroll full time. Students in the comparison group had access to the usual college services: On average in their first year, students in the comparison group had six meetings with an adviser, two meetings with career services, and seven tutoring sessions. Blocked or linked courses were available at two of the three colleges during the first semester, but enrollment in these courses is unknown. Some students also took a student success course or a freshman seminar during their first year. Students in the comparison group had no access to additional financial supports (i.e., tuition waivers, free MetroCards, or free use of textbooks).

Support for implementation

ASAP was initially funded in 2007 with a three-year, $20 million grant from the New York City Center for Economic Opportunity (CEO). ASAP is jointly administered by the CUNY Office of Academic Affairs and the participating community colleges.

Reviewed: February 2016

At least one finding shows strong evidence of effectiveness
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards without reservations
Academic achievement outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Term GPA- % with GPA >2.0

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

Semester 1

Full sample;
896 students

0.69

0.60

Yes

 
 
7
 
Access and enrollment outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Transferred to 4-year institution

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

Semester 6

Full sample;
896 students

0.25

0.17

Yes

 
 
11
 
More Outcomes

% Enrolled at any CUNY College

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

Main Session 1

Full sample;
896 students

0.96

0.94

No

--

% Enrolled at any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

Semester 1

Full sample;
896 students

0.97

0.94

No

--
Attainment outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

Semester 6

Full sample;
896 students

0.40

0.22

Yes

 
 
20
 
More Outcomes
Show Supplemental Findings

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

Semester 6

Male;
340 students

0.37

0.18

Yes

 
 
22

% Earned a degree from any college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

Semester 6

Female;
556 students

0.42

0.24

Yes

 
 
18
Credit accumulation outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Cumulative college-level credits

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

Semester 6

Full sample;
896 students

42.89

35.18

Yes

 
 
11
 
Progress in developmental education outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

% Completed development requirements

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

Semester 6

Full sample;
896 students

0.75

0.57

Yes

 
 
19
 

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • Female: 62%
    Male: 38%
  • Race
    Black
    34%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic
    44%
    Not Hispanic
    56%

  • Urban
    • B
    • A
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • I
    • H
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • P
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • V
    • U
    • T
    • W
    • X
    • Z
    • Y
    • a
    • h
    • i
    • b
    • d
    • e
    • f
    • c
    • g
    • j
    • k
    • l
    • m
    • n
    • o
    • p
    • q
    • r
    • s
    • t
    • u
    • x
    • w
    • y

    New York

Reviewed: May 2015

Study sample characteristics were not reported.
 

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