WWC review of this study

Efficacy of the Leveled Literacy Intervention System for K–2 urban students: An empirical evaluation of LLI in Denver Public Schools.

Ransford-Kaldon, C., Ross, C., Lee, C., Sutton Flynt, E., Franceschini, L., & Zoblotsky, T. (2013). Memphis, TN: Center for Research in Educational Policy, University of Memphis.

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
     examining 
    320
     Students
    , grades
    K-2

Reviewed: September 2017

At least one finding shows strong evidence of effectiveness
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards without reservations
Reading achievement outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
320 students

5.42

4.48

Yes

 
 
12
 
More Outcomes

STAR Early Literacy test

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Female; Grade: 1, 2;
50 students

49.21

43.57

No

--

Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA)

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
285 students

11.36

11.53

No

--
Show Supplemental Findings

Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA)

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Grade: K; Not Hispanic or Latino;
33 students

4.25

3.18

Yes

 
 
29

Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Female; Grade: K;
57 students

3.07

1.89

Yes

 
 
26

Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA)

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Female; Grade: K;
57 students

3.92

2.86

Yes

 
 
25

Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Grade: K;
110 students

2.71

1.95

Yes

 
 
23

Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Female; Grade: 1;
63 students

5.87

4.44

Yes

 
 
23

Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Male; Grade: K;
53 students

2.85

2.00

No

--

Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Grade: K; Hispanic or Latino;
76 students

3.11

2.16

Yes

 
 
21

Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Grade: 1; Hispanic or Latino;
96 students

5.29

4.10

Yes

 
 
19

Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA)

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Grade: K;
107 students

3.90

3.13

No

--

Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Male; Grade: 2;
40 students

9.80

8.70

No

--

STAR Early Literacy test

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Grade: 1; Not Hispanic or Latino;
27 students

54.30

44.66

No

--

Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Grade: 1;
140 students

5.37

4.41

Yes

 
 
16

STAR Early Literacy test

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Female; Grade: 1;
32 students

48.34

41.36

No

--

Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Grade: 2;
70 students

9.54

8.85

No

--

Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Male; Grade: 1;
77 students

4.97

4.38

No

--

STAR Early Literacy test

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Female; Grade: 2;
18 students

51.08

47.49

No

--

Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Grade: 1; Not Hispanic or Latino;
44 students

5.55

5.10

No

--

STAR Early Literacy test

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Male; Grade: K;
18 students

60.02

58.31

No

--

Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Grade: 2; Not Hispanic or Latino;
20 students

8.30

8.20

No

--

Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA)

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Grade: 2;
60 students

22.43

22.40

No

--

Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA)

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Grade: 1; Not Hispanic or Latino;
38 students

14.03

14.24

No

--

Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA)

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Grade: 2; Hispanic or Latino;
48 students

22.47

23.48

No

--

Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA)

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Grade: 1;
118 students

12.58

13.41

No

--

Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA)

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Grade: 1; Hispanic or Latino;
80 students

11.79

13.07

No

--

Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA)

Leveled Literacy Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Male; Grade: 1;
64 students

11.90

13.87

No

--

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • 34% English language learners

  • Female: 47%
    Male: 53%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic
    69%
    Not Hispanic
    31%

  • Urban
    • B
    • A
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • I
    • H
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • P
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • V
    • U
    • T
    • W
    • X
    • Z
    • Y
    • a
    • h
    • i
    • b
    • d
    • e
    • f
    • c
    • g
    • j
    • k
    • l
    • m
    • n
    • o
    • p
    • q
    • r
    • s
    • t
    • u
    • x
    • w
    • y

    Colorado

Setting

The study took place in 13 urban elementary and K-8 schools in Denver, Colorado.

Study sample

The study population consisted primarily of minority and economically-disadvantaged students. Roughly three out of four (69%) study participants were Hispanic, and one-third (34%) were classified as English learners. Finally, between 72%–97% of students were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch in 11 of the 13 schools, and almost half (48%) of the students were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch in one other school; no data were reported for the remaining school.

Intervention Group

For all grades, the intervention included 30-minute daily small-group LLI sessions in addition to their regular classroom literacy instruction. Grade 1 and 2 students in the LLI group received, on average, 62 sessions over 18 weeks, with individual students attending between 43 and 75 sessions. Kindergarten students in the LLI group received, on average, 45 sessions over 12 weeks, with individual students attending between 27 and 69 sessions.

Comparison Group

The comparison group could receive any other literacy intervention that was available at the participating schools. The study did not specify the names of these interventions or the number of students that received them.

Support for implementation

Literacy teachers in the intervention group received 8 days of professional development, access to the LLI online data management system, course materials, and a detailed teaching guide. Additional professional development was provided throughout the implementation year, including training on how to improve reading comprehension using teacher-to-student and student-to-student interactions.

 

Your export should download shortly as a zip archive.

This download will include data files for study and findings review data and a data dictionary.

Connect With the WWC

loading
back to top