WWC review of this study

Examining the Efficacy of a Multitiered Intervention for At-risk Readers in Grade 1

Smith, Jean Louise M.; Nelson, Nancy J.; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K.; Fein, Hank; Kosty, Derek (2016 (May 5)). The Elementary School Journal, 116 (4) Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1103958

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
     examining 
    811
     Students
    , grade
    1

Reviewed: March 2019

At least one finding shows strong evidence of effectiveness
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards without reservations
Alphabetics outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
ESSA
rating

Woodcock Reading Mastery Test- Revised (WRMT-R): Word Attack subtest

Enhanced Core Reading Instruction (ECRI) vs. Business as usual

0 Months

Full sample;
729 students

21.72

19.30

Yes

 
 
12
 
More Outcomes

Woodcock Reading Mastery Test- Revised (WRMT-R): Word Identification subtest

Enhanced Core Reading Instruction (ECRI) vs. Business as usual

0 Months

Full sample;
729 students

45.44

43.20

No

--

Dynamic Indicators for Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS): Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) - Words Recoded Completely (WRC)

Enhanced Core Reading Instruction (ECRI) vs. Business as usual

0 Months

Full sample;
743 students

21.84

19.20

No

--
Show Supplemental Findings

Dynamic Indicators for Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS): Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) - Words Recoded Completely (WRC)

Enhanced Core Reading Instruction (ECRI) vs. Business as usual

4 Months

Full sample;
763 students

16.27

13.40

Yes

 
 
12
Reading achievement outcomes—Indeterminate effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
ESSA
rating

SAT-10: Total Reading

Enhanced Core Reading Instruction (ECRI) vs. Business as usual

0 Months

Full sample;
747 students

550.52

544.40

No

--
More Outcomes
Show Supplemental Findings

SAT-10: Word Reading

Enhanced Core Reading Instruction (ECRI) vs. Business as usual

0 Months

Full sample;
749 students

541.46

530.70

No

--

SAT-10: Sentence Reading

Enhanced Core Reading Instruction (ECRI) vs. Business as usual

0 Months

Full sample;
749 students

560.78

553.80

No

--
Reading fluency outcomes—Indeterminate effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
ESSA
rating

Dynamic Indicators for Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS): Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)

Enhanced Core Reading Instruction (ECRI) vs. Business as usual

0 Months

Full sample;
743 students

56.39

53.60

No

--
More Outcomes
Show Supplemental Findings

Dynamic Indicators for Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS): Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)

Enhanced Core Reading Instruction (ECRI) vs. Business as usual

4 Months

Full sample;
764 students

30.02

25.80

Yes

 
 
10

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • 20% English language learners

  • 47% Free or reduced price lunch
  • Race
    Black
    4%
    Not specified
    96%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic
    19%
    Not Hispanic
    81%
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    Massachusetts, Oregon

Setting

The study was conducted in two waves. In the first wave, 18 schools in three Oregon school districts were recruited to participate and were randomly assigned. In the second wave (the next school year), 20 schools in three Oregon districts and 8 schools in three Massachusetts districts participated, all of which were randomly assigned. The combined sample thus included 46 schools that were randomly assigned. Of these, 44 schools participated in the study and were included in the analytic sample. The study was conducted in 1st grade classrooms in these schools (pp. 553-554).

Study sample

Of the 811 students in the analytic sample, 3.6 percent (4.3 percent intervention, 3.0 percent comparison) were African American and 18.9 percent (19.8 percent intervention, 18.0 percent comparison) were Hispanic. There were 46.7 percent (48.6 percent intervention, 44.8 percent comparison) of students which were eligible to receive free or reduced-price lunch, 19.7 percent (23.7 percent intervention, 15.8 percent comparison) were English learners, and 7.4 percent (6.6 percent intervention, 8.2 percent comparison) received special education services (p. 554).

Intervention Group

Enhanced Core Reading Instruction was implemented during the 90-minute reading block and through a 30-minute small group (3 to 5 students) enhanced instruction. The intervention lasted the duration of the school year. The ECRI intervention prioritizes critical reading content and utilizes explicit instruction. The small group instruction was designed to align closely with the reading block instruction (p. 555).

Comparison Group

Students in the comparison condition received the standard reading instruction typically provided at their schools. The study reported that whole group instruction occurred for an average of 50.0 minutes, 36.7 minutes were spent in small group instruction, and 29.2 minutes were spent doing independent work (p. 556).

Support for implementation

Prior to implementing the intervention, the intervention condition teachers participated in three days of professional development and two days of follow-up training in October. The intervention condition small group instructors participated in two days of professional development and one day of follow-up training in January. ECRI coaches visited classrooms and small group instruction to provide coaching support once per month.

 

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