WWC review of this study

Outcomes of mentoring at-risk college students: Gender and ethnic matching effects.

Campbell, T. A., & Campbell, D. E. (2007). Mentoring & Tutoring, 15(2), 135-148.

  • Quasi-Experimental Design
    , grade

Reviewed: May 2021

At least one finding shows promising evidence of effectiveness
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards with reservations
Academic achievement outcomes—Indeterminate effects found
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
Significant? Improvement

Second semester GPA

Student-faculty mentor program vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
678 students




More Outcomes

Cumulative Grade Point Average (GPA)

Student-faculty mentor program vs. Business as usual

8 Years

Full sample;
678 students





Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • Female: 63%
    Male: 37%

  • Urban
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  • Race
    Native American
    Other or unknown
  • Ethnicity
    Not Hispanic or Latino    


The program served incoming freshman and transfer students at a large metropolitan university in California.

Study sample

The study sample of 678 matched students was 63% female. Fifty-three percent of the sample were transfer students and 47% entered as freshmen. The mean entering GPA was 2.82 (high school GPA for freshmen and previous college GPA for transfer students). The sample was 22% African American and 3% Native American; 69% of students were Latino.

Intervention Group

Mentors were asked to contact their assigned mentees soon after classes began to set up an initial meeting to discuss goals and expectations. Mentors were asked to meet with their students a minimum of three times during the semester. This was intended as a one-year experience, however some mentors maintained contract with students beyond the initial year of the program. Although the program was open to all interested students, the target population was students from ethnic groups that were then underrepresented at the university (primarily Latino and African American). Students were generally paired with faculty based on shared academic interests.

Comparison Group

Control group students did not receive mentoring through the program (business as usual).

Support for implementation

The mentors were all volunteers—none were paid for their time or given release from other activities to participate in the program. An office was set up as a resource and referral site for questions posed by mentors. The office also sponsored several workshops (with catered meals) for the mentors and their students, and numerous small tokens of recognition were distributed such as coffee mugs and pens.


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