WWC review of this study

Web-Based Tutoring of the Structure Strategy With or Without Elaborated Feedback or Choice for Fifth- and Seventh-Grade Readers (Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy)

Meyer, Bonnie J. F., Wijekumar, Kay, Middlemiss, Wendy, Higley, Kelli, Lei, Pui-Wa, Meier, Catherine, Spielvogel, James (2010). Reading Research Quarterly, 45(1), 62-92 Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ871741

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
     examining 
    58
     Students
    , grades
    5-7

Reviewed: July 2020

No statistically significant positive
findings
Meets WWC standards without reservations
Comprehension outcomes—Indeterminate effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Gray Silent Reading Test (GSRT)

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

0 Days

Aggregated sample;
58 students

44.31

42.92

No

--
More Outcomes

Comparison Text: Signaling Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

0 Days

Aggregated sample;
58 students

21.02

20.81

No

--

Comparison Test: Competence Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

0 Days

Aggregated sample;
58 students

4.10

4.15

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Total Recall Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

0 Days

Aggregated sample;
58 students

51.45

51.88

No

--

Comparison Text: Total Recall Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

0 Days

Aggregated sample;
58 students

35.89

42.70

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Competence Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

0 Days

Aggregated sample;
58 students

3.93

4.52

No

--
Show Supplemental Findings

Problem/Solution Text: Competence Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

4 Months

Below grade-level readers;
21 students

3.69

3.00

No

--

Comparison Text: Signaling Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

0 Days

Below grade-level readers;
21 students

18.17

16.40

No

--

Comparison Test: Competence Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

4 Months

Below grade-level readers;
21 students

3.99

3.50

No

--

Gray Silent Reading Test (GSRT)

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

0 Days

Below grade-level readers;
21 students

37.88

36.20

No

--

Gray Silent Reading Test (GSRT)

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

0 Days

Higher-ability readers;
37 students

48.08

46.88

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Competence Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

0 Days

Below grade-level readers;
21 students

3.97

3.60

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Total Recall Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

0 Days

Below grade-level readers;
21 students

47.90

46.32

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Total Recall Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

4 Months

Below grade-level readers;
21 students

48.62

46.94

No

--

Comparison Test: Competence Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

0 Days

Below grade-level readers;
21 students

3.82

3.70

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Competence Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

4 Months

Aggregated sample;
58 students

4.26

4.11

No

--

Comparison Test: Competence Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

0 Days

Higher-ability readers;
37 students

4.27

4.41

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Total Recall Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

4 Months

Aggregated sample;
58 students

50.45

51.39

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Total Recall Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

0 Days

Higher-ability readers;
37 students

53.56

55.15

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Competence Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

4 Months

Higher-ability readers;
37 students

4.40

4.76

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Total Recall Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

4 Months

Higher-ability readers;
37 students

51.64

54.01

No

--

Comparison Text: Total Recall Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

0 Days

Below grade-level readers;
21 students

27.75

31.90

No

--

Comparison Test: Competence Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

4 Months

Aggregated sample;
58 students

3.81

4.26

No

--

Comparison Text: Signaling Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

4 Months

Higher-ability readers;
37 students

22.03

23.41

No

--

Comparison Text: Signaling Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

4 Months

Aggregated sample;
58 students

20.59

22.33

No

--

Comparison Text: Signaling Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

0 Days

Higher-ability readers;
37 students

22.32

23.41

No

--

Comparison Text: Total Recall Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

4 Months

Higher-ability readers;
37 students

34.09

43.12

No

--

Comparison Text: Total Recall Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

0 Days

Higher-ability readers;
37 students

39.61

49.06

No

--

Comparison Text: Total Recall Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

4 Months

Aggregated sample;
58 students

28.69

37.93

No

--

Comparison Text: Signaling Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

4 Months

Below grade-level readers;
21 students

17.52

20.50

No

--

Comparison Text: Total Recall Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

4 Months

Below grade-level readers;
21 students

17.55

29.10

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Competence Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

0 Days

Higher-ability readers;
37 students

4.00

5.06

No

--

Comparison Test: Competence Test

Enhanced feedback and choice of passage in Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy vs. Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS)

4 Months

Higher-ability readers;
37 students

3.73

4.71

No

--

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • Suburban
    • B
    • A
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • I
    • H
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • P
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • V
    • U
    • T
    • W
    • X
    • Z
    • Y
    • a
    • h
    • i
    • b
    • d
    • e
    • f
    • c
    • g
    • j
    • k
    • l
    • m
    • n
    • o
    • p
    • q
    • r
    • s
    • t
    • u
    • x
    • w
    • y

    Pennsylvania
  • Race
    Asian
    2%
    Black
    8%
    Not specified
    7%
    White
    83%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic    
    3%
    Not Hispanic    
    97%

Setting

The study includes grade 5 and grade 7 students in a school district in western Pennsylvania. The authors classify the district as in the urban fringe of a large city. Grade 7 students were enrolled in the district's sole middle school and grade 5 students were enrolled in one of the district's two elementary schools.

Study sample

Across all four groups, grade 5 students in the analytic sample were 85 percent white, 11 percent Black, 2 percent Asian, and 2 percent Hispanic. Five percent of the fifth-grade students were special education students and 10 percent received reduced-price lunch. Grade 7 students were 81 percent white, 4 percent Black, 2 percent Asian, 4 percent Hispanic, and 9 percent of another race or ethnicity. Two percent of the grade 7 students were special education students and 2 percent received reduced-price lunch.

Intervention Group

Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy (ITSS) is a supplemental web-based program for students in grades K-8. It is intended to develop literacy skills needed to understand factual texts encountered in classrooms and everyday life. The program teaches students how to follow the logical structure of factual text and to use text structure to improve understanding and recall. In particular, ITSS highlights five main text structures that are used to (1) make comparisons; (2) present problems and solutions; (3) link causes and effects; (4) present sequences; and (5) describe things, people, creatures, places, or events. The program helps students classify the structure of a passage by identifying certain key words, such as “solution” and “in contrast,” that clue readers in to the type of arguments the text is making. All students in both the intervention and comparison groups used ITSS several times per week for a total of 90 minutes per week. Grade 5 students used ITSS during their social studies time and grade 7 students used ITSS during a stand-alone elective period. ITSS was used individually with little teacher input. The intervention consisted of a modification to ITSS. Students were provided with a choice of texts to read at the beginning of each set of lessons and reminders that they chose the texts, plus elaborated feedback provided through pop-up windows within ITSS. Elaborated feedback modeled correct responses for students.

Comparison Group

Students in the comparison condition used ITSS for the same amount of time and under the same conditions as students in the intervention group. However, students in the comparison condition did not receive a choice of texts to read for each lesson; instead, students were assigned the same texts that students in the intervention condition chose. Students in the comparison condition also received only simple feedback within ITSS on their work, such as "good job" or "try again" based on their performance.

Support for implementation

Teachers received two, one-hour training sessions during which they received log-in credentials, interacted with ITSS with researcher assistance, and were instructed on addressing technology issues. At the start of the intervention, students were introduced to ITSS and received log-in credentials and headphones. In addition, some adaptations were made to ITSS to facilitate implementation. During early lessons, grade 7 students objected to (1) strict requirements for responses related to a passage's main idea to be considered correct and (2) ITSS indicating an incorrect response on the third unsuccessful attempt to answer a question. In response, later lessons were changed to (1) have less restrictive requirements for a correct response about a passage's main idea and (2) respond with a "thank you," instead of "incorrect" message in response to a third unsuccessful attempt to answer a question.

 

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