WWC review of this study

Effects of Multimedia Vocabulary Instruction on Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

Kennedy, Michael J.,Deshler, Donald D.,Lloyd, John Wills (2015). . Journal of Learning Disabilities, 48(1), 22-38. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1047703

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
     examining 
    141
     Students
    , grades
    9-12

Reviewed: February 2021

At least one finding shows promising evidence of effectiveness
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards without reservations
Comprehension outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Multiple-choice instrument (researcher-developed)

Content acquisition podcasts with explicit instruction and a keyword mnemonic strategy vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
141 students

24.91

18.11

Yes

 
 
44
 
More Outcomes

Open-ended instrument (researcher-developed)

Content acquisition podcasts with explicit instruction and a keyword mnemonic strategy vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
141 students

55.08

29.27

Yes

 
 
38
 
Show Supplemental Findings

Multiple-choice instrument (researcher-developed)

Content acquisition podcasts with explicit instruction and a keyword mnemonic strategy vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Students without learning disabilities;
126 students

24.91

18.30

Yes

 
 
44

Open-ended instrument (researcher-developed)

Content acquisition podcasts with explicit instruction and a keyword mnemonic strategy vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Students without learning disabilities;
126 students

54.58

31.20

Yes

 
 
36

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • Female: 52%
    Male: 48%

  • Urban
    • B
    • A
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • I
    • H
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • P
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • V
    • U
    • T
    • W
    • X
    • Z
    • Y
    • a
    • h
    • i
    • b
    • d
    • e
    • f
    • c
    • g
    • j
    • k
    • l
    • m
    • n
    • o
    • p
    • q
    • r
    • s
    • t
    • u
    • x
    • w
    • y

    Midwest
  • Race
    Black
    68%
    Not specified
    11%
    White
    22%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic    
    8%
    Not Hispanic    
    92%

Setting

The study took place during 12 sections of world history at one urban high school in a Midwestern state. Students in grades 9 to 12 were included in the analysis.

Study sample

Students were randomly assigned to four intervention groups. This review focuses on the contrast between the Content Acquisition Podcasts (CAPs) group that received a combination of explicit and keyword mnemonic strategy as compared to explicit instruction without adherence to Mayer’s instructional design principles. The analytic sample for this study contrast included 141 grade 9 to grade 12 students. Of those, 15 students had a learning disability (LD) related to reading and 126 students did not. All students in the LD subgroup were in grade 10 while approximately 90 percent of students in the non-LD subgroup were in grade 10. The study did not provide sample characteristics for the subset of 141 students assigned to the contrast of interest for this review. The authors did provide demographic characteristics for the 278 students in the analytic sample across all 4 groups included in the manuscript. Among these 278 students, 52 percent were female, 68 percent were African American, 22 percent were Caucasian, and 8 percent were Hispanic. The average age was 16.7 years old and approximately 78 percent of students were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch.

Intervention Group

Students watched Content Acquisition Podcasts (CAPs), multimedia-based instruction technology focused on vocabulary instruction. The CAPs were developed by the study authors, with input from the two participating teachers, using Microsoft PowerPoint with narrated audio recordings. The CAPs were uploaded to the school’s intranet where students independently accessed them via laptops with headphones. Each laptop contained the student’s randomly assigned multimedia vocabulary condition. Students watched a total of 10 CAPs each day over a 3 day period. After viewing 5 CAPs, students completed 5 items on an open-ended instrument followed by 5 items on a multiple choice instrument. The students then repeated this process with new CAPs and new test instruments. The CAPs for the students assigned to the combination of explicit instruction and keyword mnemonic strategy group, the intervention group in this study, were designed using Mayer’s instructional design principles. The CAPs provided rationales for why learning the given vocabulary term or concept is important, direct instruction of word meanings, examples of synonyms, guided practice, word consciousness instruction, information on how to use keyword mnemonic strategies to recall vocabulary terms and concepts, and images of keywords interacting with the vocabulary term or concept.

Comparison Group

Students assigned to the comparison condition accessed podcasts in the same format as students assigned to the intervention condition; that is, students independently accessed the podcasts via laptops and headphones. The podcasts developed for students assigned to the comparison group differed from those developed for the intervention condition in that they were not based on Mayer’s instructional design principles. The podcasts provided rationales for why learning the given vocabulary term or concept is important, direct instruction of word meanings, examples of synonyms, guided practice, and word consciousness. However, the podcasts did not include images and the additional text presented to the intervention group nor did they include the keyword mnemonic strategies presented to students in the intervention group.

Support for implementation

The study states that the support is provided by the teachers and school district. The study does not describe any additional support for implementation.

 

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This download will include data files for study and findings review data and a data dictionary.

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