WWC review of this study

An RCT of a CBT Intervention for Emerging Adults with ADHD Attending College: Functional Outcomes

Eddy, Laura D., Anastopoulos, Arthur D., Dvorsky, Melissa R., Silvia, Paul J., Labban, Jeffrey D., Langberg, Joshua M. (2021). Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. . Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED611007

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
     examining 
    205
     Students
    , grade
    PS

Reviewed: March 2022

At least one finding shows promising evidence of effectiveness
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards without reservations
Intrapersonal Competencies outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Learning and Study Strategies Inventory – Second Edition (LASSI-2) Test Strategies subscale

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
192 students

26.79

23.71

Yes

 
 
21
 
More Outcomes

Learning and Study Strategies Inventory – Second Edition (LASSI-2) Motivation subscale

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
193 students

27.44

25.05

Yes

 
 
15
 

Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function–Adult Version (BRIEF-A) Behavior Regulation Index (BRI)

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
200 students

62.97

59.06

Yes

 
 
13
 

Learning and Study Strategies Inventory – Second Edition (LASSI-2) Study Aids subscale

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
193 students

22.24

20.93

No

--

Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI- II)

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
205 students

18.87

16.19

No

--
Show Supplemental Findings

Learning and Study Strategies Inventory – Second Edition (LASSI-2) Test Strategies subscale

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

Full sample, 1 semester before end of intervention;
223 students

25.91

23.22

Yes

 
 
18

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Impact Module-Adult (AIM-A) General Well-being subscale

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

Full sample, 1 semester before end of intervention;
230 students

55.28

47.48

Yes

 
 
18

Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI- II)

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

Full sample, 1 semester before end of intervention;
232 students

23.11

18.47

Yes

 
 
16

Learning and Study Strategies Inventory – Second Edition (LASSI-2) Study Aids subscale

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

Full sample, 1 semester before end of intervention;
224 students

22.51

20.78

Yes

 
 
11

Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function–Adult Version (BRIEF-A) Behavior Regulation Index (BRI)

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

Full sample, 1 semester before end of intervention;
228 students

62.68

59.85

Yes

 
 
9

Learning and Study Strategies Inventory – Second Edition (LASSI-2) Motivation subscale

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

Full sample, 1 semester before end of intervention;
224 students

26.28

25.05

No

--

Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

Full sample, 1 semester before end of intervention;
232 students

16.33

14.65

No

--
Postsecondary Academic Achievement outcomes—Indeterminate effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Semester Grade Point Average (GPA)

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
145 students

2.67

2.58

No

--
More Outcomes
Show Supplemental Findings

Semester Grade Point Average (GPA)

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

Full sample, 1 semester before end of intervention;
167 students

2.58

2.72

No

--
Progressing in college outcomes—Indeterminate effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Number of college credits earned in a semester

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
145 students

11.66

11.83

No

--
More Outcomes
Show Supplemental Findings

Number of college credits earned in a semester

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

Full sample, 1 semester before end of intervention;
167 students

12.42

12.21

No

--
Student Behavior outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Learning and Study Strategies Inventory – Second Edition (LASSI-2) Time Management subscale

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
193 students

20.61

17.50

Yes

 
 
20
 
More Outcomes

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Impact Module-Adult (AIM-A) Relationships and Communication subscale

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
204 students

70.29

66.83

No

--
Show Supplemental Findings

Strategies for Success (SFS) -Researcher developed

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

Full sample, 1 semester before end of intervention;
232 students

59.06

48.84

Yes

 
 
30

Learning and Study Strategies Inventory – Second Edition (LASSI-2) Time Management subscale

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

Full sample, 1 semester before end of intervention;
224 students

19.25

17.52

Yes

 
 
12

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Impact Module-Adult (AIM-A) Relationships and Communication subscale

Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

Full sample, 1 semester before end of intervention;
231 students

70.12

68.21

No

--


Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • Female: 66%
    Male: 34%

  • Urban
  • Race
    Asian
    5%
    Black
    14%
    Other or unknown
    15%
    White
    66%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic    
    7%
    Not Hispanic or Latino    
    93%
  • Eligible for Free and Reduced Price Lunch
    Other or unknown    
    100%

Setting

The study took place across two public universities located in urban areas in the Southeastern United States.

Study sample

The researchers randomly assigned 149 students to the intervention group and 131 students to the comparison group from two public universities. A total of 205 of these students were included in the study. Approximately 66% of the students were female and 100% had a disability (ADHD). Sixty-six percent were White, 14% were Black, 5% were Asian, 15% reported more than one race or did not report race. Seven percent were Hispanic or Latino and 93% were not Hispanic or Latino. All students participating in the study were diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Intervention Group

The Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS) intervention is a cognitive-behavioral treatment program premised on improving ADHD knowledge, behavioral strategies, and adaptive thinking skills to facilitate improvements in multiple domains of daily life functioning negatively impacted by ADHD. The intervention took place over two consecutive semesters and consisted of both small group and individual mentoring meetings. The first semester, or “active phase”, included eight 90-minute weekly group sessions (groups of 4-6 students, on average) and weekly 30-minute individual mentoring sessions. The second semester, or “maintenance phase”, involved one 90-minute group session and up to six 30-minute individual mentoring sessions. Graduate student research assistants and one licensed master’s level professional counselor served as group leaders and mentors.

Comparison Group

Students in the comparison group did not receive the ACCESS intervention during the study.

Support for implementation

The graduate student research assistants and licensed counselor that served as group leaders and mentors received training and weekly supervision by licensed doctoral-level clinical psychologists. Training included assigned readings, group discussions, observations, and role playing. The study does not provide information on the hours of training. Study staff also received a treatment manual containing instructions for delivering group and individual sessions of ACCESS. All group and individual sessions were audio recorded for review by the study researchers. The researchers reviewed 20% of the audio recordings and determined that fidelity to the ACCESS treatment manual was observed over 95% of the time.

In the case of multiple manuscripts that report on one study, the WWC selects one manuscript as the primary citation and lists other manuscripts that describe the study as additional sources.

  • Anastopoulos, Arthur D., Langberg, Joshua M., Eddy, Laura D., Silvia, Paul J., Labban, Jeffrey D. (2021). A Randomized Controlled Trial Examining CBT for College Students with ADHD. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology v89 n1 p21-33.

 

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This download will include data files for study and findings review data and a data dictionary.

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