WWC review of this study

Effects of a behavior management strategy, CW-FIT, on high school student and teacher behavior.

Speight, R., Kucharczyk, S., & Whitby, P. (2022). Journal of Behavioral Education. 31, 751–770. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10864-020-09428-9.

  • Single Case Design
    , grade

Reviewed: February 2023

At least one finding shows promising evidence of effectiveness
Meets WWC standards with reservations

To view more detailed information about the study findings from this review, please see Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) Intervention Report (289 KB)

Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • 67% English language learners

  • Other or unknown: 100%

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  • Race
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  • Eligible for Free and Reduced Price Lunch
    Free or reduced price lunch (FRPL)    
    No FRPL    


The study took place in one English language arts class in a public high school in the southern United States.

Study sample

Participants included three focal students in one grade 9 classroom that was co-taught by one general education teacher and one special education teacher. Separate class-level findings were also presented for the 14 students in the classroom. All three focal students were identified by the special education teacher as at risk for externalizing or internalizing behavior. Two of the focal students (67%) received individualized education program services under the autism spectrum disorder category. Two of the focal students (67%) were English learners. The authors did not provide race or ethnicity information about the three focal students. Across the whole class, nine students (64%) were White and five students (36%) were described as ethnically diverse, but no specific race or ethnicity was identified in the manuscript. Two students (14%) received free or reduced-price lunch.

Intervention Group

Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a classroom management system designed to improve student behavior. The program includes establishing classroom rules and appropriate behaviors, playing a team-based game to reinforce appropriate behaviors, minimizing social attention to inappropriate behaviors, and providing self-management tools to individual students who need extra support. In this study, teachers taught students to be respectful by providing concrete examples of the skill on a poster, asking students to discuss the importance of this skill, and working with students to model the expected behaviors. After the skill was introduced, the teachers described the CW-FIT game and the rewards students could earn and organized students into teams. During each session, teachers scanned the classroom every 3 to 5 minutes and provided praise and points to teams demonstrating the target behavior. Teachers provided reminders to students and teams that were not demonstrating respectful behavior. Across each session, teams had approximately 16 opportunities to earn points. At the end of each session, teachers provided rewards, such as phone time or snacks, to the teams that met an established point criterion. Each session lasted approximately 80 minutes and took place during English language arts instruction, small-group work, or individual student work, immediately following silent reading assignments.

Comparison Group

There is no comparison group in single case designs. In the baseline and withdrawal phases of the single case designs, the teachers instructed their classroom in the typical manner and managed behavior using business-as-usual practices such as reprimanding students, prompting students to complete tasks, and removing students from the classroom when necessary. Sessions took place during English language arts lessons, after students completed their silent reading assignments.

Support for implementation

The researcher provided a 45-minute training to the teachers, which included a description of the CW-FIT intervention and procedures. Teachers also reviewed videos of CW-FIT implementation and received a fidelity tool and script with instructions. When implementing the intervention, the researcher provided follow-up coaching if fidelity levels dropped below 80%.


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This download will include data files for study and findings review data and a data dictionary.

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