This study took place in three classrooms in one public middle school in the southern United States.
Participants include 35 students in grades 6 and 7 in three classrooms taught by a total of five teachers. Two of the classes were co-taught by a general education teacher and a special education teacher. Most students in the sample were described as Hispanic or Latino (54%) and English learners (51%). In addition, 23% were White, 14% were Hawaiian or Pacific Islanders, and 3% were Black. Sixty percent of students received free or reduced-price lunch. Two of the classrooms included students with disabilities, and 23% of students had an individualized education program.
Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a classroom management system designed to improve student behavior. The program includes establishing classroom rules and appropriate behaviors, playing a team-based game to reinforce appropriate behaviors, minimizing social attention to inappropriate behaviors, and providing self-management tools to individual students who need extra support. In this study, taught two desired behaviors during two training sessions by describing the skills associated with the behaviors and providing opportunities for students to practice them. The behaviors were determined by each teacher and included following directions the first time and being respectful. The behaviors were also displayed on a poster at the front of the class. Prior to starting CW-FIT, the teachers split their classes into small groups of two to five students and described the game to students, indicating that teams could earn points if each team member demonstrated the desired behaviors. At the beginning of each session, teachers reviewed the desired behaviors, reminded students of how to earn points, and shared the reward and number of points required to receive a reward. Teachers scanned the classroom every 3 to 5 minutes; they provided praise and points to groups who demonstrated the desired behaviors and provided reminders when needed. At the end of the game, teachers tallied the points, identified teams that met the point goal for the day, and provided the reward, such as extra free time, computer time, outside time, or snacks. Teachers implemented the intervention once each day during a 45- to 90-minute session that included whole-group instruction, small-group work, or independent reading or writing.
There is no comparison group in single case designs. In the baseline phases of the single case designs, teachers implemented their typical classroom management strategies, which consisted of general praise statements, reprimands, and recording checks associated with the schoolwide punitive system. Sessions took place during whole-group instruction, small-group work, or independent reading or writing.
Support for implementation
The researcher provided training sessions in each teacher's classroom, which covered CW-FIT components and scripts, assigning students to groups, giving points and rewards, and providing praise statements and reprimands. During the training, the teachers identified the target behaviors that would be used in their classrooms. Teachers also watched videos of other teachers implementing CW-FIT and were given posters showing the target behaviors. Training took place during two 45-minute sessions or one 90-minute session. During the initial CW-FIT sessions, the researcher provided immediate feedback to teachers to improve implementation. Feedback focused on increasing behavior-specific praise, awarding points, and reducing reprimands. Training sessions continued until teachers reached 90% fidelity.