WWC review of this study

The efficacy of supplemental instruction in decoding skills for Hispanic and non-Hispanic students in early elementary school.

Gunn, B., Biglan, A., Smolkowski, K., & Ary, D. (2000). Journal of Special Education, 34(2), 90-103. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ611322

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
     examining 
    16
     Students
    , grades
    K-3

Reviewed: June 2016

Study sample characteristics were not reported.

In the case of multiple manuscripts that report on one study, the WWC selects one manuscript as the primary citation and lists other manuscripts that describe the study as additional sources.

  • Gunn, B., Biglan, A., Smolkowski, K., & Ary, D. (2000). The efficacy of supplemental instruction in decoding skills for Hispanic and non-Hispanic students in early elementary school. Journal of Special Education, 34(2), 90-103.

Reviewed: August 2010

Study sample characteristics were not reported.

In the case of multiple manuscripts that report on one study, the WWC selects one manuscript as the primary citation and lists other manuscripts that describe the study as additional sources.

  • Gunn, B., Smolkowski, K., Biglan, A., Black, C., & Blair, J. (2005). Fostering the development of reading skill through supplemental instruction: Results for Hispanic and non-Hispanic students. Journal of Special Education, 39(2), 66–86.

  • Gunn, B., Smolkowski, K., Biglan, A. & Black, C. (2002). Supplemental instruction in decoding skills for Hispanic and Non-Hispanic students in early elementary school: A follow-up. Journal of Special Education, 36 (2), 69–80.

Meets WWC standards with reservations

Reviewed: February 2009

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • Female: 45%
    Male: 55%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic
    62%
    Not Hispanic
    38%

  • Rural

Reviewed: July 2007

Study sample characteristics were not reported.

In the case of multiple manuscripts that report on one study, the WWC selects one manuscript as the primary citation and lists other manuscripts that describe the study as additional sources.

  • Gunn, B., Smolkowski, K., Biglan, A. & Black, C. (2002). Supplemental instruction in decoding skills for Hispanic and Non-Hispanic students in early elementary school: A follow-up. Journal of Special Education, 36 (2), 69–80.

No statistically significant positive
findings
Meets WWC standards without reservations

Reviewed: September 2006

Reading achievement outcomes—Substantively important positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
index

Oral Reading Fluency

Reading Mastery vs. Business as Usual

Posttest

Grades K–3;
16 students

51.75

24.92

No

 
 
35
More Outcomes

Woodcock-Johnson (WJ): Word Attack subtest

Reading Mastery vs. Business as Usual

Posttest

Grades K–3;
16 students

11.63

5.33

No

 
 
26

Woodcock-Johnson (WJ): Letter-Word Identification subtest

Reading Mastery vs. Business as Usual

Posttest

Grades K–3;
16 students

19.63

14.11

No

 
 
21

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • 100% English language learners

  • Female: 45%
    Male: 55%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic
    62%
    Not Hispanic
    38%
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    Oregon

Setting

The study was part of a larger evaluation of a program in nine elementary schools across three school districts in Oregon.

Study sample

The original study involved 156 students in grades K–3. Students in kindergarten, first, and second grades were assessed during the spring prior to beginning the first year of the intervention (Time 1), assessed again one year later (Time 2), and assessed a final time the following year (Time 3). Students were selected for participation in the study on the basis of low reading achievement and aggressive tendencies. Specifically, students who scored below grade level on reading assessments and high on aggression (as rated by teachers) were included in the study to examine the effect of supplemental reading instruction on students meeting these criteria. A post hoc analysis was conducted on a small portion of these students (n=17) who were English language learners and for whom pre- and posttest data were available (there were 19 of these students at the beginning of the study). All estimates of intervention effects are based on this subsample. The English language learners were included in the process of randomly assigning all participants (limited and fluent English proficient) to a condition. All students were grouped by ethnicity and then rank-ordered by reading ability. Participants were matched, beginning with poorest readers, and randomly assigned to a condition. That is, students from each pair were randomly assigned to the intervention or comparison condition.

Intervention Group

The intervention group received their usual reading instruction supplemented by Reading Mastery if they were beginning readers in grades 1 or 2. Students below grade level in grades 3 or 4 were put into an appropriate level of SRA Corrective Reading. Both programs include components that facilitate the development of beginning reading skills, but the programs differ in instructional methodology. Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading both entail explicit instruction in phonemic awareness, sound-letter correspondence, and blending. New sounds were introduced to students assigned to the Corrective Reading group at a faster pace than to students in the Reading Mastery group, and stories used for the Corrective Reading group were selected based on their appeal to older students. Relative to English speaking peers, English language learning students were provided additional time per lesson if assistants needed to explain English vocabulary. Most instruction was conducted in groups of two to three students, though some one-to-one instruction was provided. The program was delivered as a pull-out lasting 25–30 minutes a day.

Comparison Group

The comparison group of English language learning students had the same regular reading instruction but did not participate in the supplemental instruction programs.

Outcome descriptions

A series of reading subtests from Woodcock-Johnson were administered four times in the course of the two-year intervention. (See Appendix A2 for more detailed descriptions of outcome measures.) Outcomes reported here are drawn from the spring of the second year (that is, after two years of the intervention; reported in Appendix A3). In addition, a follow-up assessment was conducted one year after the conclusion of the study. It is reported in Appendix A4.

Support for implementation

Project assistants delivered the intervention to students, supplementing the normal reading instruction delivered by the classroom teacher. In all cases except one, instruction took place as a pull-out program. All assistants received 10 hours of preservice training in testing, student-grouping, general instructional skills, and the theoretical approach of the program. To ensure program delivery met program standards, assistants were observed weekly in the first month of the program and twice a month thereafter.

In the case of multiple manuscripts that report on one study, the WWC selects one manuscript as the primary citation and lists other manuscripts that describe the study as additional sources.

  • Gunn, B., Smolkowski, K., Biglan, A. & Black, C. (2002). Supplemental instruction in decoding skills for Hispanic and Non-Hispanic students in early elementary school: A follow-up. Journal of Special Education, 36 (2), 69–80.

  • Gunn, B., Smolkowski, K., Biglan, A., Black, C., & Blair, J. (2005). Fostering the development of reading skill through supplemental instruction: Results for Hispanic and non-Hispanic students. Journal of Special Education, 39(2), 66–86.

 

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