WWC review of this study

Increasing Community College Graduation Rates: A Synthesis of Findings on the ASAP Model from Six Colleges across Two States

Miller, Cynthia, Weiss, Michael (2021). MDRC. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED611732

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
     examining 
    2,397
     Students
    , grade
    PS

Reviewed: March 2022

At least one finding shows strong evidence of effectiveness
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards without reservations
College degree attainment outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample, Semester 6 (end of intervention);
2,397 students

36.89

20.12

Yes

 
 
20
 
More Outcomes
Show Supplemental Findings

Graduation from 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

0 Days

CUNY program only, Semester 6 (end of intervention);
896 students

0.90

0.00

No

--

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-4 Semesters

CUNY program only, 4 semesters before end of intervention;
896 students

0.20

0.00

No

--

Graduation from 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-4 Semesters

CUNY program only, 4 semesters before end of intervention;
896 students

0.20

0.00

No

--

Graduation from 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-3 Semesters

CUNY program only, 3 semesters before end of intervention;
896 students

0.20

0.00

No

--

Graduation from 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-2 Semesters

CUNY program only, 2 semesters before end of intervention;
896 students

0.20

0.00

No

--

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-5 Semesters

Full sample, 5 semesters before end of intervention;
2,397 students

0.23

0.02

No

--

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-3 Semesters

Full sample, 3 semesters before end of intervention;
2,397 students

5.81

2.18

Yes

 
 
23

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-3 Semesters

CUNY program only, 3 semesters before end of intervention;
896 students

2.90

1.10

No

--

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-4 Semesters

Full sample, 4 semesters before end of intervention;
2,397 students

1.14

0.47

No

--

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

Full sample, 1 semester before end of intervention;
2,397 students

28.55

13.80

Yes

 
 
21

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-2 Semesters

Full sample, 2 semesters before end of intervention;
2,397 students

17.35

8.17

Yes

 
 
20

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

0 Days

CUNY program only, Semester 6 (end of intervention);
896 students

40.00

22.10

Yes

 
 
20

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

CUNY program only, 1 semester before end of intervention;
896 students

29.10

15.70

Yes

 
 
18

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

6 Months

CUNY program only ;
896 students

42.30

26.50

Yes

 
 
17

Graduation from 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

12 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

4.40

2.20

No

--

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

12 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

44.90

29.70

Yes

 
 
15

Graduation from 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

6 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

1.50

0.80

No

--

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

18 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

46.30

31.90

Yes

 
 
14

Graduation from 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

18 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

7.10

4.00

Yes

 
 
14

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-2 Semesters

CUNY program only, 2 semesters before end of intervention;
896 students

14.50

8.90

Yes

 
 
13

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

24 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

47.10

35.10

Yes

 
 
12

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

30 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

48.50

36.10

Yes

 
 
12

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

36 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

49.70

37.50

Yes

 
 
12

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

42 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

50.20

38.30

Yes

 
 
12

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

48 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

51.10

38.80

Yes

 
 
12

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

54 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

51.70

39.20

Yes

 
 
12

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

60 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

52.00

39.90

Yes

 
 
12

Graduation from 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

24 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

11.90

8.30

No

--

Graduation from 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

30 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

14.90

12.90

No

--

Graduation from 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

42 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

19.40

18.00

No

--

Graduation from 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

48 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

22.20

20.60

No

--

Graduation from 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

60 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

24.90

23.50

No

--

Graduation from 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

36 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

17.50

16.70

No

--

Graduation from 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

54 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

23.10

22.40

No

--

Graduation from 2-year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-5 Semesters

CUNY program only, 5 semesters before end of intervention;
896 students

0.00

0.00

No

--

Graduation from 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-5 Semesters

CUNY program only, 5 semesters before end of intervention;
896 students

0.00

0.00

No

--

Graduation from 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

CUNY program only, 1 semester before end of intervention;
896 students

0.50

5.00

Yes

-42
 
 
College enrollment outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample, Semester 6 (end of intervention);
2,397 students

20.72

14.11

Yes

 
 
11
 
More Outcomes

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample, Semester 6 (end of intervention);
2,397 students

27.50

29.60

No

--
Show Supplemental Findings

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-4 Semesters

CUNY program only, 4 semesters before end of intervention;
896 students

91.20

81.10

Yes

 
 
20

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-5 Semesters

Full sample, 5 semesters before end of intervention;
2,397 students

96.09

92.50

Yes

 
 
16

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-4 Semesters

Full sample, 4 semesters before end of intervention;
2,397 students

84.63

73.24

Yes

 
 
16

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-5 Semesters

CUNY program only, 5 semesters before end of intervention;
896 students

96.30

93.60

No

--

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-3 Semesters

Full sample, 3 semesters before end of intervention;
2,397 students

70.19

60.31

Yes

 
 
10

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

0 Days

CUNY program only, Semester 6 (end of intervention);
896 students

25.00

17.80

Yes

 
 
10

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-2 Semesters

Full sample, 2 semesters before end of intervention;
2,397 students

59.33

49.97

Yes

 
 
9

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

Full sample, 1 semester before end of intervention;
2,397 students

15.04

11.25

Yes

 
 
8

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-3 Semesters

CUNY program only, 3 semesters before end of intervention;
896 students

75.80

68.90

Yes

 
 
8

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-2 Semesters

CUNY program only, 2 semesters before end of intervention;
896 students

66.20

58.20

Yes

 
 
8

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

CUNY program only, 1 semester before end of intervention;
896 students

16.60

12.60

No

--

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

6 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

27.60

23.00

No

--

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

60 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

3.10

2.50

No

--

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

54 Months

CUNY program only ;
896 students

15.20

12.90

No

--

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

60 Months

CUNY program only ;
896 students

15.40

13.00

No

--

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

30 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

6.90

6.00

No

--

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

12 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

28.70

26.20

No

--

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-4 Semesters

CUNY program only, 4 semesters before end of intervention;
896 students

1.00

0.90

No

--

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

Full sample, 1 semester before end of intervention;
2,397 students

42.03

40.02

No

--

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-5 Semesters

Full sample, 5 semesters before end of intervention;
2,397 students

0.58

0.55

No

--

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-2 Semesters

Full sample, 2 semesters before end of intervention;
2,397 students

7.08

6.76

No

--

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

36 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

5.10

4.90

No

--

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-1 Semesters

CUNY program only, 1 semester before end of intervention;
896 students

45.30

43.80

No

--

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

24 Months

CUNY program only ;
896 students

27.10

27.20

No

--

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-3 Semesters

CUNY program only, 3 semesters before end of intervention;
896 students

1.50

1.50

No

--

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-2 Semesters

CUNY program only, 2 semesters before end of intervention;
896 students

5.20

5.30

No

--

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

18 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

26.50

26.90

No

--

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

54 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

4.20

4.50

No

--

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-3 Semesters

Full sample, 3 semesters before end of intervention;
2,397 students

3.08

3.52

No

--

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

42 Months

CUNY program only ;
896 students

18.20

19.90

No

--

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

0 Days

CUNY program only, Semester 6 (end of intervention);
896 students

26.80

29.90

No

--

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

42 Months

CUNY program only ;
896 students

4.00

4.60

No

--

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

48 Months

CUNY program only ;
896 students

16.00

18.10

No

--

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

36 Months

CUNY program only ;
896 students

19.00

21.90

No

--

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

24 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

6.00

8.00

No

--

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

30 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

20.80

26.20

No

--

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-5 Semesters

CUNY program only, 5 semesters before end of intervention;
896 students

0.50

0.70

No

--

College enrollment - 4 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

-4 Semesters

Full sample, 4 semesters before end of intervention;
2,397 students

1.46

2.08

No

--

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

48 Months

CUNY program only ;
896 students

3.50

5.10

No

--

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

18 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

7.90

11.50

No

--

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

6 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

12.20

19.80

Yes

-14
 
 

College enrollment - 2 year college

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) vs. Business as usual

12 Months

CUNY program only;
896 students

8.70

15.30

Yes

-15
 
 

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • Female: 63%
    Male: 37%
    • B
    • A
    • C
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    • G
    • I
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    • Q
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    • S
    • V
    • U
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    • W
    • X
    • Z
    • Y
    • a
    • h
    • i
    • b
    • d
    • e
    • f
    • c
    • g
    • j
    • k
    • l
    • m
    • n
    • o
    • p
    • q
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    • s
    • t
    • u
    • x
    • w
    • y

    New York, Ohio
  • Race
    Black
    35%
    Other or unknown
    33%
    White
    32%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic    
    22%

Setting

The study took place at six community colleges in New York City and Ohio.

Study sample

A total of 2,397 students at 6 community colleges (3 in New York and 3 in Ohio) were included in the study. Sixty-three percent of students were female. Thirty-five percent were Black, 32 percent were White, and 33 percent did not report a race. Twenty-two percent were Hispanic or Latino. Eighty-three percent of students had remedial education requirements and 50 percent were eligible for Pell grants. Students were eligible if they were low-income, were new to college or had completed fewer than 12 credits in New York or 24 credits in Ohio, and intended to complete a degree program than could be completed in 6 semesters (3 years).

Intervention Group

Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) is a 3-year program designed to remove barriers to college success and encourage students to graduate from a community college with an associate degree within 3 years by providing financial, academic, and other supportive services. Student services were provided by ASAP-dedicated staff at each college campus. Students were required to meet with an ASAP-dedicated student academic adviser once or twice per month, receive career advising at least once per semester, and attend 1 hour per week of tutoring if taking remedial courses or on academic probation. ASAP students were enrolled in blocks of courses together with other ASAP students in order to create a sense of school community and to shorten the amount of time on campus each day. ASAP students attended a seminar or course on student academic success and goal setting. ASAP students also received financial supports, including a tuition waiver that covered the gap between financial aid and college tuition and fees, vouchers for public transportation, and free use of textbooks (or textbook vouchers).

Comparison Group

Students in the comparison group had access to usual college academic support, career advising, and tutoring services.

Support for implementation

In New York, ASAP was initially funded in 2007 with a three-year, $20 million grant from the New York City Center for Economic Opportunity and was jointly administered by the CUNY Office of Academic Affairs and the participating community colleges. In Ohio, ASAP was funded through a consortium set up by a research corporation, MDRC, with primary funding from the Great Lakes Higher Education Guaranty Corporation and additional funding from foundation funders. Over time, the participating community colleges were expected to take on an increasing share of the costs. CUNY and MDRC provided start-up technical assistance and the Ohio Department of Higher Education served as coordinator of the Ohio ASAP Network to facilitate communication and coordination across participating community colleges.

In the case of multiple manuscripts that report on one study, the WWC selects one manuscript as the primary citation and lists other manuscripts that describe the study as additional sources.

  • Miller, C., Headlam, C., Manno, M., & Cullinan, D. (2020). Increasing Community College Graduation Rates with a Proven Model: Three-Year Results from the Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) Ohio Demonstration. MDRC.

  • Scrivener, S., Weiss, M. J., Ratledge, A., Rudd, T., Sommo, C., & Fresques, H. (2015). Doubling graduation rates: Three-year effects of CUNY’s Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) for developmental education students. MDRC.

 

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