Mathemantics Preschool --> 3: Development and Evaluation of Mathematics Software for Children from Preschool to Grade 3
Co-Principal Investigator(s): Horwitz, Paul
Purpose: In this project, the researchers aimed to develop and pilot test a software system, MathemAntics, designed to present a supplementary mathematics curriculum for students ranging from preschool to grade 3. This software system was to focus on a number of topics ranging from basic ideas about cardinal numbers to negative integers, and it was to be an attractive, enjoyable yet challenging virtual world where students would receive mathematics instruction. One way the researchers proposed to accomplish this was to integrate graphical tools that would allow students to operate virtual objects in ways not possible with physical manipulatives and an avatar will provide instruction, feedback, and support. MathemAntics was also going to have a powerful information processing capability will provide assessment data to teachers.
Project Activities: The proposed project included the development of a software system, a formative evaluation of student use of the system, and a survey of teacher attitudes toward and use of the system. The development process included iteratively development and integrated findings from the formative evaluation and survey will inform the refinement and further development of the system and supporting materials. At the end of development, the researchers planned a small pilot study to test whether student achievement improves with use of the system.
THE FOLLOWING CONTENT DESCRIBES THE PROJECT AT THE TIME OF FUNDING
Setting: The software system will be developed at Teachers College, Columbia University. The field-testing, formative evaluation, and pilot achievement study will be conducted in local elementary schools in New York City.
Population: The participants include students in preschool through grade 3, most of whom are African American and Latino students from low socioeconomic backgrounds.
Intervention: The intervention will be a game-like, whimsical computer environment where mathematical activities (e.g., counting, addition) can be performed. The activities will be presented to the students as games. The intervention will have three major components:
Additionally, an avatar (e.g., an animated fairy godmother in the kindergarten version) will provide real-time instruction, assistance, and feedback to the student, both visually and auditorily. As students work through each game, the computer will keep track of how well they are doing and will use this information to update their individual learning profiles as well as to make real time decisions regarding level changes within a game or promotions to more complex games in a sequence. The system will allow for both individual and small group use, and teachers will receive assessment data from the system. This data will include (but not be limited to) information regarding accuracy of student responses and various strategies (including erroneous ones) that were used in problem solving. This information will enable teachers to track their students' progress and to fine-tune the game sequence for each child.
Research Design and Method: The development of the software will follow an iterative design, where the results of the phase 1 formative evaluation will inform the redesign carried out in phase 2. The pilot study in phase 3 will employ a between-subjects design where students assigned to the treatment will receive the to-be-designed intervention and students assigned to the control condition will receive a software intervention for reading. This will hold constant student exposure to software and time spent in instruction and practice, but varying the content being taught via the software.
Control Condition: In order to equate the time spent using software, the control students will spend an equivalent amount of time interacting with a reading software intervention in addition to their standard instruction in mathematics. This would equate the amount of exposure to software in general while varying the amount of exposure to the math content.
Key Measures: The key measures used during the development of the software system include observational data from video recordings and software records of accuracy and speed. Survey data pertaining to teachers' attitudes toward use of the software will also be collected and analyzed. For the pilot testing of learning (i.e., achievement), the researchers will use the Test of Early Mathematics Ability-3 (TEMA-3) and an experiment-designed assessment instrument.
Data Analytic Strategy: Descriptive statistics will be used to analyze qualitative data of the formative evaluation (e.g., strategy, verbalization) and quantitative data (e.g., accuracy, speed). The pilot achievement data will be analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques.
ERIC Citations: Find available citations in ERIC for this award here.
Ginsburg, H. P., Labrecque, R., Carpenter, K., and Pager, D. (2015). New Possibilities for Early Mathematics Education: Cognitive Guidelines for Designing High-Quality Software to Promote Young Children's Meaningful Mathematics Learning. In A. Dowker, and R.C. Kadosh (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Numerical Cognition (pp. 1055–1078). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Ginsburg, H.P., Azadeh, J., and Creighan, S. (2013). Cognitive Guidelines for the Design and Evaluation of Early Mathematics Software: The Example of MathemAntics. In L.D. English, and J.T. Mulligan (Eds.), Reconceptualizing Early Mathematics Learning, Advances in Mathematics Education (pp. 83–120). Netherlands: Springer.