Development and Evaluation of the Beliefs and Attitudes for Successful Implementation in Schools for Teachers (BASIS-T)
Co-Principal Investigators: Aaron Lyon and Mylien Duong (University of Washington)
Purpose: The purpose of this project is to iteratively refine and pilot test the feasibility and efficacy of an implementation enhancement intervention, the Beliefs and Attitudes for Successful Implementation in Schools for Teachers (BASIS-T). This intervention is designed to strategically impact key individual-level factors that facilitate teachers' implementation of evidence-based practices and programs (EBPPs) to support students' social, emotional, and behavioral skills. In schools, implementation initiatives often occur as top-down mandates without attention paid to the attitudes, beliefs, and perceived benefits of those expected to implement the specific practices embedded within EBPPs. Without addressing these individual-level barriers, the effort and costs of system-level implementation strategies – such as enacting new legislation and policies or large-scale training initiatives – are unlikely to lead to improvements in education systems and student outcomes. Yet there have been few efforts to develop and test innovative interventions to enhance implementation.
Project Activities: This three-year project includes four studies designed to refine and pilot test BASIS-T. In Study 1, the team will hold an expert summit to review an initial version of BASIS-T and gather input to guide revisions to content and delivery for use in schools. During Study 2, the researchers will gather input from key stakeholders about BASIS-T content and activities to enhance its feasibility, acceptability, appropriateness, and likely effectiveness. In Study 3, the research team will field test BASIS-T to gather additional feedback regarding the actual implementation of the intervention. During Study 4, they will carry out an experimental pilot test of BASIS-T in support of implementation of one EBPP (PAX-Good Behavior Game (GBG)) to evaluate its impact on key process variables and implementation outcomes relative to a comparison group (PAX-GBG alone).
Products: The products of this project include the Beliefs and Attitudes for Successful Implementation in Schools for Teachers (BASIS-T) intervention and all materials to support its implementation (e.g., manuals, fidelity of implementation measures) in elementary schools, along with peer reviewed publications.
Setting: This project will take place in urban and suburban school districts in Minnesota.
Sample: Participants in this project include approximately 100-120 elementary school teachers, 30 elementary school principals and administrators, and 420 students in grades K-5, of whom about 70 percent are non-white and 70 percent receive free/reduced school lunch.
Intervention: This implementation enhancement intervention, the Beliefs and Attitudes for Successful Implementation in Schools for Teachers (BASIS-T), is informed by the theory of planned behavior and includes specific intervention components to target each element hypothesized to be necessary for behavior change: strategic education to shift attitudes regarding the value of EBPPs to support students' social and behavioral competencies; motivational interviewing to bolster the belief that changing instructional practices is possible; and social psychological influence techniques (social proofing – the idea that decisions are made in part based on the behavior of others judged to be respectable, credible and/or similar to themselves, and strategies to reduce cognitive dissonance) to change subjective norms regarding the use of EBPPs. BASIS-T will be designed to be delivered immediately prior to training on any universal EBPP targeting students' social, emotional, and behavioral functioning.
Research Design and Methods: This three -year project includes four studies designed to refine and pilot test BASIS-T. Researchers in Study 1 will hold an Expert Summit to review the initial version of BASIS-T, test assumptions of the theory of change, and gather recommendations to revise BASIS-T content and delivery for use in schools. In Study 2, the team will hold focus groups with key stakeholders to gather feedback about BASIS-T content and activities to enhance its feasibility, acceptability, appropriateness, and likely effectiveness. During Study 3, they will carry out intervention demonstrations of BASIS-T with a nominated group of teachers to gather additional feedback regarding the actual implementation of the intervention. In the final year of the project, the researchers will complete Study 4, an experimental pilot test of BASIS-T in support of implementation of one EBPP (PAX-Good Behavior Game (GBG)) to evaluate its impact on key process variables and implementation outcomes relative to a comparison group (PAX-GBG alone).
Control Condition: Teachers randomly assigned to the control group will receive training and follow-up support in the PAX-Good Behavior Game (GBG).
Key Measures: The research team will use surveys to assess teachers' attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. They will assess implementation of BASIS-T and the EBPP (PAX-GBG) using observations and self-report. Student education outcomes will be measured using school administrative data (e.g., discipline, attendance) and Direct Behavior Ratings of classroom behavior.
Data Analytic Strategy: The research team will use qualitative analyses, descriptive statistics, and inferential statistics to refine the intervention and assess feasibility, fidelity, and appropriateness of the BASIS-T. They will use t-tests, repeated measures analyses, and multi-level modeling to examine the impact of BASIS-T on teacher implementation of the EBPP (PAX-GBG) and student education outcomes.