Evaluation of a Video-Based Modeling Program to Promote Effective Teacher Classroom Management Practices
Co-Principal Investigators: Keith Herman, Melissa Stormont
Purpose: Although much is known about effective classroom management strategies, many teachers are not adequately trained to deal with behavior problems in the classroom. The Incredible Years teacher training (IY TT) program is an innovative video-based modeling program that incorporates active learning of classroom management skills. In this efficacy study, the research team will examine the effects of IY TT on the academic performance of students in kindergarten through third grade and determine the extent to which classroom behavior mediates the relationship between teacher classroom management skills and students' academic performance in the classroom.
Project Activities: The IY TT program is designed to promote teachers' knowledge and use of good classroom management practices, including effective praise, proactive teaching strategies, consistent consequences, and effective reprimands. Teachers learn to promote students' social skills and self-regulation abilities, and to be sensitive to students' developmental and individual differences. Teachers also learn strategies for working closely with parents. Skills are introduced and practiced through video-based modeling that includes brief vignettes of authentic teacher-student interactions, followed by opportunities for role-play of similar scenarios with feedback from IY TT trainers and fellow teachers. On-going support is provided in the classroom through coaching, consultation, and collaboration with peers. In this study, teachers are randomly assigned within schools to participate in the IY TT intervention or a control group. Assessments occur at the beginning and end of the intervention year to examine the short-term impact of the program, and again in the spring of the following school year to determine sustained and longer-term impacts of the program on student behavior and academic outcomes.
Products: The expected products of this study include published reports on the effects of The Incredible Years teacher training (IY TT) program on the academic achievement and disruptive and off-task behavior of students in kindergarten through third grade, and on the extent to which classroom behavior mediates the relationship between the IY TT program and students' academic achievement.
Setting: A large urban school district in Missouri that implements Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS).
Population: Study participants are students and teachers in 100 kindergarten through third grade classrooms situated in 20 public elementary schools.
Intervention: The Incredible Years teacher training (IY TT) program provides strategies for effectively managing classroom behavior through a process of active engagement and support as teachers implement the strategies learned. The training model used in this program has three core components: (1) video-based modeling, (2) opportunities for practice and rehearsal, and (3) teacher consultation. In this study, teachers attend six one-day workshops offered over the course of the school year. Teachers learn how to (1) encourage and praise students, (2) motivate students through the use of incentives, (3) proactively prevent problem behaviors, (4) decrease inappropriate and off-task behavior, and (5) build positive relationships with all students in the classroom and their parents. During the workshops, teachers view and discuss videotaped vignettes of unrehearsed teacher-student classroom interactions to observe effective and ineffective classroom strategies. IY TT trainers then model the effective strategies, after which teachers break out into small groups and role play what they have learned. Trainers provide further support by visiting teachers in their classrooms twice during the school year to observe and provide consultation as needed. In addition to the workshops and ongoing coaching and consultation, an IY TT Buddy System allows teachers to problem solve and support one another as they implement strategies in the classroom.
Research Design and Methods: In this efficacy study, 100 kindergarten through third grade teachers are randomized within school by cohort into either the IY TT condition or the control condition (30 classrooms in Year 1, 40 in Year 2 and 30 in Year 3). Data are collected on teacher classroom practices and students' academic and social behavior. Assessments of students' academic achievement and social behavior occur pre- and post-post intervention, and in the spring of the following school year.
Control Condition: Teachers who are assigned to the control group will receive the standard teacher continuing education program that is currently provided in the school district.
Key Measures: Student academic achievement is measured with the Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement, 3rd Edition (WJ-III) and school records (e.g., grades). Disruptive and off-task student behavior is measured using the Multi-Option Observation System for Experimental Studies (MOOSES), the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Revised (TOCA-Revised), , and school records (e.g., discipline referrals). Student prosocial behaviors are measured using the Behavior and Emotional Rating Scale 2nd Edition (BERS-2) and the Social Competence Scale-Teacher (T-COMP). Potential teacher-level mediators are also assessed (e.g., Teacher Sense of Self Efficacy Scale (TSSES), the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)). Intervention fidelity will be measured using MOOSES and the Classroom Ecology Checklist (CEC).
Data Analytic Strategy: Analysis of Covariance will be used to compare treatment and control conditions. Structural equation modeling will be used to examine mediated effects. Latent growth curve analyses and latent profile modeling will be used for exploratory analyses of moderated effects.
Herman, K.C., Reinke, W.M., Thompson, A.M., and Faloughi, R. (2015). Universal Prevention to Support Children's Mental Health In Schools. In M.K. Holt and A.E. Grills (Eds.), Critical Issues in School-based Mental Health: Evidence-based Research, Practice, and Interventions, 190–202.
Journal article, monograph, or newsletter
Dong, N., Reinke, W.M., Herman, K.C., Bradshaw, C.P., and Murray, D.W. (2016). Meaningful Effect Sizes, Intraclass Correlations, and Proportions of Variance Explained by Covariates for Planning Two-and Three-Level Cluster Randomized Trials of Social and Behavioral Outcomes. Evaluation Review, 40(4), 334–377.
Farmer, T., Reinke, W.M., and Brooks, D. (2014). Managing Classrooms and Challenging Behavior: Theoretical Considerations and Critical Issues. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 22: 67–73.
Floress, M.T., Beschta, S.L., Meyer, K.L., and Reinke, W.M. (2017). Praise Research Trends and Future Directions: Characteristics and Teacher Training. Behavioral Disorders, 43(1), 227–243.
Floress, M.T., Jenkins, L.N., Reinke, W.M., and McKown, L. (2017). General Education Teachers' Natural Rates of Praise: A Preliminary Investigation. Behavioral Disorders, 0198742917709472.
Herman, K.C., and Reinke, W.M. (2017). Improving Teacher Perceptions of Parent Involvement Patterns: Findings From a Group Randomized Trial. School Psychology Quarterly, 32(1): 89–104.
Herman, K.C., Borden, L.A., Reinke, W.M., and Webster-Stratton, C. (2011). The Impact of the Incredible Years Parent, Child, and Teacher Training Programs on Children's Co-Occurring Internalizing Symptoms. School Psychology Quarterly, 26(3): 189–201.
Herman, K.C., Hickmon-Rosa, J.E., and Reinke, W.M. (2018). Empirically Derived Profiles Of Teacher Stress, Burnout, Self-Efficacy, And Coping And Associated Student Outcomes. Journal Of Positive Behavior Interventions, 20(2), 90–100.
Herman, K.C., Reinke, W.M., Bradshaw, C.P., Lochman, J.E., Boxmeyer, C.L., Powell, N.P., Dunn, K., Cox, J., Vaughn, C., and Ialongo, N.S. (2012). Integrating the Family Check-Up and the Parent Coping Power Program. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 5(3): 208–219.
Jenkins, L.N., Floress, M.T., and Reinke, W. (2015). Rates and Types of Teacher Praise: A Review and Future Directions. Psychology in the Schools, 52(5): 463–476.
King, K.R., Lembke, E.S., and Reinke, W.M. (2016). Using Latent Class Analysis to Identify Academic and Behavioral Risk Status in Elementary Students. School Psychology Quarterly, 31(1): 43–57.
Reinke, W.M. Stormont, M., Herman, K.C., and Newcomer, L. (2014). Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-Based Interventions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1): 150–167.
Reinke, W.M. Stormont, M., Herman, K.C., Wang, Z., Newcomer, L., and King, K. (2014). Use of Coaching and Behavior Support Planning for Students With Disruptive Behavior Within a Universal Classroom Management Program. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 22(2): 74–82.
Reinke, W.M., and Herman, K.C. (2016). Bridging the Gap: Using the Brief Student-Teacher Classroom Interaction Observation to Inform Classroom Practices. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 42(1): 43–45.
Reinke, W.M., and Herman, K.C. (2016). Using Brief Assessments of Important Indicators to Inform School-Based Interventions and Practice. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 42(1): 3–5.
Reinke, W.M., Herman, K.C., and Newcomer, L. (2016). The Brief Student–Teacher Classroom Interaction ObservationUsing Dynamic Indicators of Behaviors in the Classroom to Predict Outcomes and Inform Practice. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 42(1); 32–42.
Reinke, W.M., Herman, K.C., and Stormont, M. (2013). Classroom Level Positive Behavior Supports in Schools Implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying Areas for Enhancement. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 15(1): 39–50.
Reinke, W.M., Herman, K.C., Darney, D., Pitchford, J., Becker, K., Domitrovich, C., and Ialongo, N. (2012). Using the Classroom Check-Up Model to Support Implementation of PATHS to PAX. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 5(3): 220–232.
Reinke, W.M., Herman, K.C., Stormont, M., Newcomer, L., and David, K. (2013). Illustrating the Multiple Facets and Levels of Fidelity of Implementation to a Teacher Classroom Management Intervention. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 40(6): 494–506.
Reinke, W.M., Stormont, M., Clare, A., Latimore, T., and Herman, K.C. (2013). Differentiating Tier 2 Social Behavioral Interventions According to Function of Behavior. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 29(2): 148–166.
Reinke, W.M., Stormont, M., Herman, K.C., Wachsmuth, S., and Newcomer, L. (2015). The Brief Classroom Interaction Observation-Revised: An Observation System to Inform and Increase Teacher Use of Universal Classroom Management Practices. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 17(3): 159–169.
Reinke, W.M., Stormont, M., Webster-Stratton, C., Newcomer, L., and Herman, K.C. (2012). The Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program: Using coaching to support generalization to real-world classroom settings. Psychology in the Schools, 49(5): 416–428.
Stormont, M. and Reinke, W.M. (2012). Using Coaching to Support Classroom-Level Adoption and Use of Interventions Within School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support Systems. Beyond Behavior, 21: 11–19.
Stormont, M., and Reinke, W.M. (2013). Implementing Tier 2 Social Behavioral Interventions: Current Issues, Challenges, and Promising Approaches. Journal Of Applied School Psychology, 29(2): 121–125.
Stormont, M., and Reinke, W.M. (2014). Providing Performance Feedback for Teachers to Increase Treatment Fidelity. Intervention in School and Clinic, 49(4): 219–224.
Stormont, M., Herman, K.C., Reinke, W.M., David, K.B., and Goel, N. (2013). Latent Profile Analysis of Teacher Perceptions of Parent Contact, Comfort and Endorsement of School. School Psychology Quarterly, 28(3): 195–209.
Stormont, M., Herman, K.C., Reinke, W.M., Owens, S., and King, K. (2015). The Kindergarten Academic and Behavior Readiness Screener: The Utility of Single-Item Teacher Ratings of Kindergarten Readiness. School Psychology Quarterly, 30(2): 212–228.
Stormont, M., Reinke, W.M., and Herman, K.C. (2011). Teachers' Characteristics and Ratings For Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions. Behavioral Disorders, 37: 19–29.
Stormont, M., Reinke, W.M., Newcomer, L., Darney, D., and Lewis, C. (2015). Coaching Teachers' Use of Social Behavior Interventions to Improve Children's Outcomes: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 17(2): 69–82.
Stormont, M., Thomas, N.C., and VanGarderen, D. (2012). Introduction to the Special Issue: Building Capacity to Improve Student Outcomes through Collaboration: Current Issues and Innovative Approaches. Psychology in the Schools, 49: 399–401.
Wang, Ze, Roher, D., Fujiki, M., Chuang, C., Herman, K.C., and Reinke, W.M. (2015). Five Methods to Score the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Checklist and to Examine Group Differences. Journal of Experimental Education, 83(1): 24–50.
Webster-Stratton, C., Reinke, W.M., and Herman, K.C. (2011). The Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training: The Methods and Principles That Support Fidelity of Training Delivery. School Psychology Review, 40: 509–529.
Webster-Stratton, C., Reinke, W.M., Herman, K.C., and Newcomer, L.L. (2011). The Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training: The Methods and Principles That Support Fidelity of Training Delivery. School Psychology Review, 40(4): 509–529.