Skip Navigation

Special Education Research and Development Centers

Center:

NCSER

Year:

2008

Principal Investigator:

Greenwood, Charles

Grantee:

University of Kansas

Program:

Special Education Research and Development Centers [Program Details]

Award Period:

07/01/2008 - 06/30/2013

Award Amount:

$10,000,000

Goal:

Multiple Goals

Center for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood

Purpose: Reading development depends on language development and pre-literacy experiences prior to formal schooling. Children who have not had many language or early literacy experiences prior to kindergarten face significant challenges learning to read. These children often continue to experience poor reading skills throughout school. With continued failure, many of them may become eligible for special education which may involve services that are "too little too late" and are often very costly for children, their families, and education systems. Given the importance of reading, systems of prevention and intervention in early education settings are needed. The growing use of Response to Intervention (RtI) models in elementary schools has attracted attention among early childhood educators and researchers. RtI is a systematic problem-solving process designed to recognize students' difficulties early, provide students with a level of instructional intensity matched to their level of need, and then provide a data-based method for measuring their progress. While the use of RtI in preschool settings holds great promise, a numbers of questions exist about how these models will be translated from elementary school settings.

The Center's primary objectives are (1) to conduct focused research to develop and rigorously evaluate and replicate intensive interventions for preschool language and early literacy skills and (2) to develop and validate an assessment system linked to these interventions. In addition, the research team will provide national leadership on development and implementation of RtI models for young children and conduct supplementary studies related to RtI and assessment issues. The Center's long-term goal is to prevent disabilities in reading by increasing the number of young children who enter school with knowledge and skill in early literacy and language.

Focused program of research: Two interventions will be developed and evaluated. These interventions will be used as supplementary (i.e., Tier II) and tertiary (i.e., Tier III) interventions in an RtI model. The interventions will consist of intensified instruction in oral language, vocabulary, phonological and phonemic awareness, print awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and comprehension. Researchers will evaluate the efficacy of these interventions during the final two project years. In addition, a series of language and early literacy measures to be used for screening and progress monitoring will be developed. These will include measures of phonological awareness, comprehension, and language skills. A focused series of validation studies will be conducted to produce a preschool assessment system for identifying students who need intensive intervention and for measuring their progress. The research sites include Kansas, Ohio, Oregon, and Minnesota.

Supplemental Center Activities: The Center will investigate the relationships among the quality of the core preschool curriculum and children's growth on early literacy and language skills, level of active engagement in the curriculum, and assignment to more intensive interventions. The Center researchers are also coordinating a network of RtI users and researchers, and they are planning an annual RtI in Early Childhood Institute on early literacy and language strategies and interventions, curricula, progress monitoring, and data based decision-making.

Products: The products of this project include intensive interventions for improving preschoolers' language and literacy skills and an assessment system for identifying and measuring the progress of children who need intensive intervention. Additional products include published reports, institutes, and presentations related to preschool RtI models.

Co-Principal Investigator: Judith Carta

Key Personnel: Charles Greenwood, Judith Carta, Maura Linas, Howard Goldstein, Robin Ziolkowski, Scott McConnell, Tracy Bradfield, Ruth Kaminski, Annie Hommel.

Center Website: http://www.crtiec.org/

IES Program Contact: Amy Sussman
Email: Amy.Sussman@ed.gov
Telephone: (202) 219-2126

Publications from this project:

Goldstein, H. (2011). Knowing what to teach provides a roadmap for early literacy intervention. Journal of Early Intervention, 33 (4), 268–280.doi: 10.1177/1053815111429464.

Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., & McConnell, S. (2011). Advances in measurement for universal screening and individual progress monitoring of young children. Journal of Early Intervention, 33 (4), 254–267. doi: 10.1177/1053815111428467.

Greenwood, C. R., Bradfield, T., Kaminski, R., Linas, M., Carta, J. J., & Nylander, D. (2011). The Response to Intervention (RTI) approach in early childhood. Focus on Exceptional Children, 43 (9), 1–22.

Greenwood, C. R., & McConnell, S. R. (2011). JEI guidelines for manuscripts describing the development and testing of an assessment instrument or measure. Journal of Early Intervention, 33 (3), 171–185.

Carta, J., Greenwood, C. R., Baggett, K., Buzhardt, J., & Walker, D. (2012). Research-based approaches for individualizing caregiving and educational interventions for infants and toddlers in poverty. In S. L. Odom, E. Pungello & N. Gardner-Neblett (Eds.), Re-visioning the beginning: The implications of developmental and health science for infant/toddler care and poverty. New York: Guilford.

Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., Atwater, J., Goldstein, H., Kaminski, R., & McConnell, S. R. (2012). Is a response to intervention (RTI) approach to preschool language and early literacy instruction needed? Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 33 (1), 48–64. doi: 10.1177/0271121412455438.

Roseth, C. J., Missall, K. N., & McConnell, S. R. (2012). Early Literacy Individual Growth and Development Indicators (EL-IGDIs): Growth trajectories using a large, internet-based sample. Journal of School Psychology, 50, 483–501. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2012.03.001.

Spencer, E. J., Goldstein, H., & Kaminski, R. (2012). Teaching vocabulary in storybooks: Embedding explicit vocabulary instruction for young children. Young Exceptional Children, 15 (1), 18–32. doi: 10.1177/1096250611435367.

Spencer, E. J., Goldstein, H., Sherman, A., Noe, S., Tabbah, R., Ziolkowski, R., & Schneider, N. (2012). Effects of an automated vocabulary and comprehension intervention: An early efficacy study. Journal of Early Intervention. doi: 10.1177/1053815112471990

Bradfield, T., Besner, A., Wackerle-Hollman, A., Albano, A., Rodriguez, M., & McConnell, S. (2013). Redefining Individual Growth and Development Indicators: Oral Language. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 39 (4), 233–244.

Carta, J. J., & Driscoll, C. (2013). Early literacy intervention for children with special needs. In T. Shanahan & C. Lonigan (Eds.), Early childhood literacy: The National Early Literacy Panel and beyond (pp. 233–254). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Carta, J. J., & Greenwood, C. R. (2013). Future challenges and new directions in RTI. In V. Buysse & E. Peisner-Feinberg (Eds.), Handbook of Response to Intervention in early childhood. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Kong, N., & Carta, J. J. (2013). Responsive interaction interventions for children at risk for and with developmental delays. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 33 (1), 4–17.

McConnell, S. R., & Greenwood, C. R. (2013). General outcome measures in early childhood and the Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs). In V. Buysse & E. Peisner-Feinberg (Eds.), Handbook of Response to Intervention in early childhood. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Wackerle-Hollman, A., Schmitt, B., Bradfield, T., Rodriguez, M., & McConnell, S. (2013). Redefining Individual Growth and Development Indicators: Phonological Awareness. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 48, 495–510. doi: 10.1177/0022219413510181.

Kaminski, R., Abbott, M., Bravo-Aguayo, K., Latimer, R., & Good, R. H. (2014). The preschool early literacy indicators: Validity and benchmark goals. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 34 (2), 71–82. doi: 10.1177/0271121414527003

Kaminski R. A., Powell-Smith, K. A., Hommel, A., McMahon, R. & Bravo-Aguayo, K. (2014). Development of Tier 3 curricula to teach early language and literacy skills. Journal of Early Intervention, 36 (4), 313–332.

McConnell, S. R., Bradfield, T., & Wackerle-Hollman, A. (2014). Universal screening in educational settings. In R. Kettler, T. Glover, C. Albers & K. Feeney-Kettler (Eds.), Early Childhood Literacy Screening: Identification, implications, and interpretation. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Noe, S., Spencer, T. D., Kruse, L., & Goldstein, H. (2014). Effects of a tier 3 phonological awareness intervention on preschoolers' emergent literacy. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 34, 27–39. doi: 10.1177/0271121413489172.

Carta, J. (2015). When should children be identified and receive special education services? In B. Bateman, M. Tankersley, & J. Lloyd (Eds.). Issues in special education. (pp. 351–366) New York: Routledge.

Carta, J. J., Greenwood, C. R., Atwater, J., McConnell, S. R., Goldstein, H. & Kaminski, R. (2015). Identifying preschool children for higher tiers of language and early literacy instruction within a Response to Intervention framework. Journal of Early Intervention, 36 (4), 281–291.

Greenwood, C. R. (2015). How should learning environments (Schools and Classrooms) be structured for best learner outcomes? In B. Bateman, M. Tankersley, & J. W. Lloyd (Eds.), Enduring Issues in Special Education: Personal perspectives (pp. 303–323). New York, NY: Routledge.

Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., & Atwater, J. (2015). The Center on Response to Intervention in Early Childhood (CRTIEC): Developing evidence-based tools for a multi-tier approach to preschool language and early literacy instruction. Journal of Early Intervention, 36 (4), 246–262.

Kaminski, R., Abbott, M., Bravo-Aguayo, K., Latimer, R., & Good, R. H. (2015). The preschool early literacy Indicators: Validity and benchmark goals. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 34 (2), 71–82. doi: 10.1177/0271121414527003

Kelley, E. S., & Goldstein, H. (2015). Building a Tier 2 intervention: A glimpse behind the data. Journal of Early Intervention, 36 (4), 292–312. doi: 10.1177/1053815115581657

McConnell, S. R., Wackerle-Hollman, A. K., Bradfield, T. A., & Rodriguez, M. (2015). Designing a measurement framework to inform an RTI decision-making system. Journal of Early Intervention, 36 (4), 263–280, doi: 1053815115578559

Carta, J., & Driscoll, C. (in press). Early literacy interventions for young children with special needs. In T. Shanahan & C. Lonigan (Eds.), Literacy in preschool and kindergarten children: The National Early Literacy Panel and beyond. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Carta, J. J., Greenwood, C. R., Goldstein, H., McConnell, S., Kaminski, R., Bradfield, T., Wackerle-Hollman, A., Linas, M., Guerrero, G., Spencer, E., & Atwater, J. (in press). Advances in multi-tiered systems of support for prekindergarten children: Lessons learned from 5 years of research and development from the Center for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood. In M. K. Jimerson, A. M. Burns & A. M. VanDerHeyden (Eds.), The handbook of response to intervention: The science and practice of multi-tiered systems of support (2nd Ed.). New York: Springer.

Goldstein, H., & Olszewski, A. (in press). Developing a phonological awareness curriculum: Reflections on an implementation science framework. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research.

Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., Spencer, E., Guerrero, G., Kong, N. Y., Atwater, J., & Goldstein, H. (in press). The effects of a tier 2 vocabulary and comprehension storybook intervention on preschool children's early learning: A replication. The Elementary School Journal.

Kelley, E. S., & Goldstein, H. (in press). Programmatic research guiding the development of Tier 2 curricula to teach early language and literacy skills. Journal of Early Intervention.

Linas, M. W., & Guerrero, G. (in press). The use of response to intervention in early childhood. In A. Garro (Ed.), Early childhood assessment in school and clinical psychology. New York, NY: Springer.

Spencer, E., Spencer, T., Goldstein, H., & Schneider, N. (in press). Identifying early literacy learning needs: Implications for child outcome standards and assessment systems. In T. Shanahan & C. Lonigan (Eds.), Literacy in preschool and kindergarten children: The National Early Literacy Panel and beyond. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.


Back