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|REL 2021087||The Impact of Career and Technical Education on Postsecondary Outcomes in Nebraska and South Dakota
Education leaders in Nebraska and South Dakota partnered with the Regional Educational Laboratory Central to examine how completing a sequence of career and technical education (CTE) courses in high school affects students' rates of on-time high school graduation and their rates of postsecondary education enrollment and completion within two and five years. The study found that CTE concentrators (students who complete a sequence of CTE courses aligned to a specific career field such as manufacturing or education and training) were 7 percentage points more likely than non-CTE concentrators to graduate from high school on time and 10 percentage points more likely to enroll in any type of postsecondary education within two years of their expected high school graduation year. The study also found that CTE concentrators were 3 percentage points more likely than non-CTE concentrators to earn a postsecondary award, such as a professional certificate, diploma, or associate’s or bachelor’s degree, within five years of their expected high school graduation year. CTE concentrators were 4 percentage points more likely than non-CTE concentrators to obtain up to an associate’s degree as their highest postsecondary award within five years of their expected high school graduation year but 1 percentage point less likely to obtain a bachelor’s degree or higher.
|REL 2021079||Outcomes for Early Career Teachers Prepared through a Pilot Residency Program in Louisiana
Louisiana's Believe and Prepare pilot program, supported by grants from the Louisiana Department of Education, aimed to prepare teacher candidates or in-service teachers through a residency with a mentor and a competency-based curriculum. To improve teacher preparation and teacher residencies, state and teacher education leaders in Louisiana sought to better understand the early career outcomes for participants in the pilot program. This study analyzed data for the three cohorts that participated in the program between 2014/15 and 2016/17. A majority (76 percent) of pilot participants were enrolled in a university-based teacher preparation program. The study examined certification, employment, and retention outcomes for a subset of pilot participants who were teacher candidates or early career teachers (together referred to as early career Believe and Prepare pilot participants). About 30 percent of early career Believe and Prepare pilot participants who attained a Level 1 professional certificate in 2015/16–2017/18 were certified in a high-need subject, as defined by the Louisiana Department of Education (middle grades math and science, secondary math and science, or special education), and 28 percent of participants who entered teaching in 2015/16–2018/19 taught in a high-need subject in their first year of teaching. Early career pilot program participants who completed a residency in a primary school were more likely than those who completed a residency in a nonprimary school to attain a Level 1 professional certificate. Participants who completed a residency in a charter school were less likely than those who completed a residency in a noncharter school to attain a Level 1 professional certificate. (Louisiana does not require Level 1 certifications for charter schools.) Of early career Believe and Prepare teachers who entered teaching in 2015/16–2017/18, 89 percent were retained in the state for a second year, 76 percent were retained in the same district, and 71 percent were retained in the same school. Among these teachers the within-state retention rate was lowest for teachers in high-need subjects, and the within-school retention rate was lowest for secondary and middle grades math and science teachers.
|WWC 2021043||Bottom Line Intervention Report
This What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) intervention report summarizes the research on Bottom Line. Bottom Line provides intensive advising for low-income high school students, most of whom are the first in their family to go to college. The advising is designed to help students apply for college and financial aid and select a high-quality, affordable institution. For students who attend one of Bottom Line's target colleges, which they identified as providing a high-quality education at an affordable price, Bottom Line continues to provide regular support to students on campus for up to six years. Based on the research, the WWC found that Bottom Line has potentially positive effects on college enrollment and potentially positive effects on progressing in college.
|REL 2021082||Supporting Students with Health Conditions in District of Columbia Public Schools
To inform a plan for supporting students with health conditions, District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) partnered with the Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic on a study to understand how the prevalence of health conditions differs by student characteristics, whether students are supported through a 504 plan or an individualized education program (IEP), and the relationship between student health conditions and education outcomes. The study found that 27 percent of students in DCPS had a reported health condition in 2018/19, which is lower than the percentages reported for health conditions in the city in other data sources and could thus be an undercount. Health conditions were most prevalent among DCPS students who are male, who are Black/non-Hispanic, who are economically disadvantaged, or who attended school outside their ward of residence. Asthma was the most prevalent health condition, reported by 16 percent of students, which is double the national average. Among students with a reported health condition, 28 percent received support through a 504 plan or an IEP. Students with health conditions who are Black/non-Hispanic, who are economically disadvantaged, or who attended school outside their ward of residence were more likely to receive support through an IEP than students without these characteristics. In contrast, students with health conditions who are White/non-Hispanic or who are not economically disadvantaged were more likely to receive support through a 504 plan than other groups of students. Students with a reported health condition generally fared worse on education outcomes than students without a health condition.
|NCEE 2021007||Adult Education Strategies: Identifying and Building Evidence of Effectiveness
The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act encourages adult education programs to use evidence-based strategies to improve services and participant success. This systematic review of research suggests a need for more rigorous studies, as there is not yet much evidence to guide decision making around instructional and support strategies for adult learners.
|REL 2021081||Analyzing Teacher Mobility and Retention: Guidance and Considerations Report 2
This applied research methods report is a guide for state and local education agency policymakers and their analysts who are interested in studying teacher mobility and retention. This report is the second in a two-part set and builds on the foundational information in report 1. This report presents guidance on how to interpret differences in mobility and retention rates by teacher, school, or district characteristics; analyze year-to-year trends in mobility and retention; compare mobility and retention rates across districts or states; and examine how the implementation of a policy related to teachers might be associated with teacher mobility or retention.
|REL 2021080||Analyzing Teacher Mobility and Retention: Guidance and Considerations Report 1
This applied research methods report is a guide for state and local education agency policymakers and their analysts who are interested in studying teacher mobility and retention. This report provides the foundational information needed to answer policy-relevant research questions related to teacher mobility and retention and presents the decision points and steps necessary for conducting basic mobility and retention analyses.
|REL 2021086||A Third-Grade Teacher's Guide to Supporting Family Involvement in Foundational Reading Skills
This Third Grade Teacher's Guide provides information for third grade teachers on how to support families as they practice foundational reading skills at home. It serves as a companion to the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) practice guide, Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade. Both guides present four research-based recommendations and how-to steps: the WWC guide is for teaching children at school, and this guide is to help teachers support families in practicing foundational reading skills at home.
The information in this Third Grade Teacher's Guide is designed to assist teachers in supporting out-of-school literacy activities that are aligned to classroom instruction, informed by student need, grounded in evidence-based practices, and facilitated by ongoing parent-teacher communication. The Teacher's Guide provides a framework for literacy support activities presented during schools' family literacy nights and parent-teacher conferences. This Teacher's Guide includes:
|REL 2021076||Michigan Teachers Who Are Not Teaching: Who Are They, and What Would Motivate Them to Teach?
Statewide teacher shortages in Michigan are impeding efforts to ensure all students equitable access to qualified teachers. To alleviate shortages, education leaders have considered recruiting certified teachers who are not currently teaching (both those who have never taught and those who left teaching). This study analyzed teacher certification and employment data and data from a survey of certified teachers who were not teaching in a Michigan public school in 2017/18 to gather information on the viability of this recruitment option. The report describes the characteristics of these nonteaching certified teachers, the three most important reasons why they are not teaching, and the three most important incentives that would motivate them to teach in a public school in the state. The study found that approximately 61,000 teachers certified in Michigan were not teaching in the state’s public schools in 2017/18. A survey of nonteaching certified teachers found that they most frequently selected wanting a higher salary as one of the three most important reasons why they were not teaching and that they most frequently selected an increase in salary as one of the three most important incentives that would motivate them to teach. Respondents also frequently selected financial incentives, such as allowing retirees to retain their retirement benefits, improving other benefits, and forgiving student loans, as one of their three most important incentives. Nonteaching certified teachers might consider becoming a public school teacher if it were easier and less costly to earn or renew a teaching certificate, if they could more easily obtain a full-time or part-time position, and if they were assured of school leadership support and smaller class sizes or a lighter student load.
|REL 2021077||Advanced Placement Participation, Staffing, and Staff Training in the District of Columbia Public Schools
To expand participation in Advanced Placement (AP) courses, several District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) high schools have enacted a policy mandating that all students enroll in one or more AP courses. To promote quality instruction in AP courses, DCPS recommends regular teacher participation in the Advanced Placement Summer Institute (APSI) and is considering recommending that teachers' college major be factored into teacher assignments to AP courses. To better understand this policy and these recommendations, this study examined students' AP exam taking and passing rates in schools that mandate AP course enrollment and in schools that do not, teacher participation in the APSI, and the alignment of AP teachers' college major with the AP course they teach. Three of the four high schools that adopted a mandate on AP course enrollment during the study period had higher AP exam taking and passing rates after their mandate went into place. In three of the five schools that adopted a mandate before or during the study period, the passing rate (grade 10–12 students in the school who passed at least one AP exam as a percentage of all grade 10–12 students in the school) was below 20 percent in every year of the study period, and in a fourth it was below 50 percent in every year. Fewer than one-fifth of AP teachers participated in the APSI at least once every three years. Participation rates were higher in schools offering more AP courses, in schools with lower percentages of racial/ethnic minority students, among teachers whose college major aligned with the AP course they taught, and among more experienced teachers. Among AP teachers with a college major on record, about half had a college major aligned with each specific AP course they taught, and 70 percent had a college major aligned with the broad subject area of each AP course they taught.
|REL 2021073||Using High School Data to Predict College Readiness and Early College Success on Guåhan (Guam)
On Guåhan (Guam), the large percentages of students enrolling in non-credit-bearing courses at Kulehon Kumunidåt Guåhan (Guam Community College) and Unibetsedåt Guåhan (University of Guam) have raised concerns about college readiness and early college success. Without adequate research on predictors of college readiness and early success among students on Guåhan, educators and other stakeholders find it difficult to identify and support students at risk of being underprepared for college. This study examined which student characteristics predicted college readiness and early college success among students who graduated from Guåhan high schools and enrolled at Kulehon Kumunidåt Guåhan or Unibetsedåt Guåhan between 2012 and 2015. Students' college readiness and early college success were assessed using three indicators: enrolling in only credit-bearing math and English courses during the first year of college, earning all credits attempted during the first semester of college, and persisting to a second year of college. About 23 percent of students met all three indicators and were thus classified as demonstrating college readiness and early college success. The percentages of students who met each individual indicator varied: 30 percent enrolled in only credit-bearing math and English courses, 43 percent earned all the credits they attempted, and 74 percent persisted to a second year. Various student characteristics predicted meeting all three indicators and each individual indicator. Graduates of John F. Kennedy High School and male students were the most likely to meet all three indicators and were the most likely to enroll in only credit-bearing math and English courses. Completing a high-level math course during high school positively predicted meeting the composite indicator of college readiness and early college success and of enrolling in only credit-bearing math and English courses and earning all credits attempted. A higher cumulative high school grade point average also positively predicted meeting all three indicators and each individual indicator. Kulehon Kumunidåt Guåhan enrollees were more likely than Unibetsedåt Guåhan enrollees to earn all credits attempted during their first semester.
|WWC 2021009||Xtreme Reading Intervention Report
The Xtreme Reading curriculum is primarily designed to help students improve their vocabulary, decoding, fluency, and reading comprehension skills. The Xtreme Reading program includes teacher-led whole-group instruction, cooperative group work, paired practice, and independent practice.
Based on the research, the WWC found that Xtreme Reading has no discernible effects on comprehension or general literacy achievement. The WWC based its conclusion on its review of two studies of Xtreme Reading that met WWC group design standards. The two studies included 3,008 students, who were struggling readers based on their low performance on state standardized tests, in 39 high schools in 12 districts across 9 states.
|WWC 2021008||Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS®)
PATHS® is delivered through short lessons given two to three times a week over the school year. The program is based on the principle that understanding and regulating emotions are central to effective problem solving. The lessons focus on five components: self-control, emotional literacy, social competence, positive peer relations, and interpersonal problem-solving skills.
Based on the research, the WWC found that PATHS® has no discernible effects on academic achievement, social interactions, observed individual behavior, or emotional status. The WWC based its conclusion on its review of two studies of PATHS® that met WWC group design standards. One study included 1,582 students in 45 schools in 10 districts in the United Kingdom. The second study included 133 students with disabilities in seven elementary schools in three school districts in the state of Washington.
|REL 2021083||The Impact of Word Knowledge Instruction on Literacy Outcomes in Grade 5
District leaders in a large urban school district in central Florida wanted to examine the efficacy of a new curriculum designed to enhance the word knowledge of grade 5 students so as to improve reading achievement. The new curriculum, called Word Knowledge Instruction (WKI), consists of 15-minute lessons 4 days a week for 20 weeks. The lessons address state standards and cover 20 prefixes and suffixes. Thirty-nine schools participated in the study, with 92 English language arts (ELA) teachers in high-poverty schools randomly assigned within schools either to use WKI or to continue to use their standard ELA curriculum. Classroom observations revealed that WKI was implemented as intended. WKI had a positive effect, equivalent to an increase of 9 percentile points, on students' ability to correctly extract and spell a base word from a derived word, one of the skills explicitly taught by WKI. WKI had no effect on two other related reading skills that were not directly taught by WKI (students' ability to select a nonword that best fits the grammatical context of a sentence or to use knowledge of word parts to infer meaning of new words) or on students' vocabulary or reading scores. These findings suggest that, although students learned what they were explicitly taught, the transferability to related but not directly taught skills might require more intense or longer duration instruction or additional professional development for teachers.
|REL 2021068||Measuring Civic Readiness: A Review of Survey Scales
This resource supports state and local education agencies in identifying, comparing, and contrasting survey scales that measure a variety of civic readiness categories. It describes the format and structure of survey scales, details the civic readiness categories measured by the scales, and summarizes the reliability and validity evidence associated with the scales.
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