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 Pub Number  Title  Date
NCES 2022025 Teachers of Hispanic or Latino Origin: Background and School Settings in 2017‒18
This Data Point examines the background and school settings of teachers of Hispanic or Latino origin in public and private schools in the United States in school year 2017–18, by selected school and teacher characteristics.
REL 2021084 Effectiveness of Early Literacy Instruction: Summary of 20 Years of Research
Children entering kindergarten vary greatly in their language and literacy skills. Therefore, up-to-date information about evidence-based practices is essential for early childhood educators and policymakers as they support preschool children’s language and literacy development. This study used a process modeled after the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) methodology to systematically identify effective early childhood curricula, lesson packages, instructional practices, and technology programs in studies conducted from 1997 to 2017. More than 74,000 studies were analyzed to identify interventions that improved students' performance in six language and literacy domains (language, phonological awareness, print knowledge, decoding, early writing, and general literacy). The study team identified 132 interventions evaluated by 109 studies that the study team determined were high-quality experimental or quasi-experimental studies. The WWC's evidence standards are used to assess the quality of an evaluation study and the strength of its claims about whether an intervention caused the observed effect on student achievement. To better understand the effectiveness of the interventions, their implementation characteristics and instructional features were coded for the relevant language and literacy domains. The findings revealed that instruction that teaches a specific domain is likely to increase performance in that domain. Interventions that teach language exclusively might be more beneficial when conducted in small groups or one-on-one than in larger group sizes. In addition, teaching both phonological awareness and print knowledge might benefit performance in print knowledge. Finally, some evidence indicates that instruction that teaches both phonological awareness and print knowledge might also lead to improvements in decoding and early writing performance.
NCSER 2020001 An Introduction to Adaptive Interventions and SMART Designs in Education
Educators must often adapt interventions over time because what works for one student may not work for another and what works now for one student may not work in the future for the same student. Adaptive interventions provide education practitioners with a prespecified, systematic, and replicable way of doing this through a sequence of decision rules for whether, how, and when to modify interventions. The sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trial (SMART) is one type of multistage, experimental design that can help education researchers build high-quality adaptive interventions.

Despite the critical role adaptive interventions can play in various domains of education, research about adaptive interventions and the use of SMART designs to develop effective adaptive interventions in education is in its infancy. To help the field move forward in this area, the National Center for Special Education Research (NCSER) and the National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE) commissioned a paper by leading experts in adaptive interventions and SMART designs. This paper aims to provide information on building and evaluating high-quality adaptive interventions and review the components of SMART designs, discuss the key features of the SMART, and introduce common research questions for which SMARTs may be appropriate.
NPEC 2018023 The History and Origins of Survey Items for the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (2016–17 Update)
This report updates the 2011–12 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) survey components report—The History and Origins of Survey Items for the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System—in order to reflect the 2016–17 data collection. The report was developed to document the sources of current IPEDS data items as background information for interested parties and to provide guidance when NCES, technical review panels, and others are considering potential changes to the IPEDS data collection.
NCEE 20184002 Asymdystopia: The threat of small biases in evaluations of education interventions that need to be powered to detect small impacts
Evaluators of education interventions are increasingly designing studies to detect impacts much smaller than the 0.20 standard deviations that Cohen (1988) characterized as "small." While the need to detect smaller impacts is based on compelling arguments that such impacts are substantively meaningful, the drive to detect smaller impacts may create a new challenge for researchers: the need to guard against smaller inaccuracies (or "biases"). The purpose of this report is twofold. First, the report examines the potential for small biases to increase the risk of making false inferences as studies are powered to detect smaller impacts, a phenomenon the report calls asymdystopia. The report examines this potential for both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and studies using regression discontinuity designs (RDDs). Second, the report recommends strategies researchers can use to avoid or mitigate these biases. For RCTs, the report recommends that evaluators either substantially limit attrition rates or offer a strong justification for why attrition is unlikely to be related to study outcomes. For RDDs, new statistical methods can protect against bias from incorrect regression models, but these methods often require larger sample sizes in order to detect small effects.
NCEE 20174026 Comparing Impact Findings from Design-Based and Model-Based Methods: An Empirical Investigation
This report compares empirical results from different approaches to analyzing data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). It focuses on how impact estimates compare between recently-developed design-based methods and traditional model-based methods. Design-based methods use the potential outcomes framework and known features of study designs to connect statistical methods to the building blocks of causal inference. They differ from model-based methods that have commonly been used in education research, including hierarchical linear model (HLM) methods and robust cluster standard error (RCSE) methods for clustered designs. This study re-analyzes nine past RCTs in the education area using both design- and model-based methods. The study finds that model-based and design-based methods yield very similar impact estimates and levels of statistical significance, especially when the underlying analytic assumptions (e.g., weights used to aggregate clusters and blocks) are aligned.
NCES 2017092 A Quarter Century of Changes in the Elementary and Secondary Teaching Force: From 1987 to 2012

This report looks at changes in several key characteristics of the teaching force between the 1987-88 and 2011-12 school years, including the number of teachers, the level of teaching experience, and the racial/ethnic diversity of the teaching force. The report focuses on how these demographic changes varied across different types of teachers and schools.

Among the findings about changes in the teacher workforce over this 25 year period:

  • The teacher work force grew by 46 percent between 1987-88 and 2011-12. Above average growth was seen among teachers in the fields of English as a Second Language, English language arts, mathematics, foreign language, natural science, and special education. Below-average growth was seen in the fields of general elementary education, vocational-technical education, and art/music;

  • The growth in the teaching force varied across different types of schools. The teaching force in high-poverty public schools grew by nearly 325 percent while the number of teachers in low-poverty schools declined by almost 20 percent. The number of teachers in private schools grew at a higher rate than in public schools. However, private school teachers still account for only about 12 percent of the teacher work force; and

  • The teacher force became more diverse. While minority teachers remain underrepresented in the teaching force, both the number and proportion of minority teachers increased. Between 1987–88 and 2011–12, the number of minority teachers grew by 104 percent, compared to 38 percent growth in the number of White teachers. The percentage of teachers who belonged to all minority groups increased from 12.4 percent in 1987-88 to 17.3 percent in 2011-12.

This report utilizes data from the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), a large-scale sample survey of elementary and secondary teachers and schools in the United States. SASS has been conducted seven times—in school years 1987-88, 1990-91, 1993-94, 1999-2000, 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12.

NCER 20162003 Synthesis of IES-Funded Research on Mathematics: 2002–2013
This synthesis reviews published papers on IES-supported research from projects awarded between 2002 and 2013. The authors identified 28 specific contributions that IES-funded research made to support mathematics learning and teaching from kindergarten through secondary school. The publication organizes the contributions by topic and grade level and each section describes the contributions IES-funded researchers are making in these areas and discusses the projects behind the contributions.
NCSER 2015002 The Role of Effect Size in Conducting, Interpreting, and Summarizing Single-Case Research
The field of education is increasingly committed to adopting evidence-based practices. Although randomized experimental designs provide strong evidence of the causal effects of interventions, they are not always feasible. For example, depending upon the research question, it may be difficult for researchers to find the number of children necessary for such research designs (e.g., to answer questions about impacts for children with low-incidence disabilities). A type of experimental design that is well suited for such low-incidence populations is the single-case design (SCD). These designs involve observations of a single case (e.g., a child or a classroom) over time in the absence and presence of an experimenter-controlled treatment manipulation to determine whether the outcome is systematically related to the treatment.

Research using SCD is often omitted from reviews of whether evidence-based practices work because there has not been a common metric to gauge effects as there is in group design research. To address this issue, the National Center for Education Research (NCER) and National Center for Special Education Research (NCSER) commissioned a paper by leading experts in methodology and SCD. Authors William Shadish, Larry Hedges, Robert Horner, and Samuel Odom contend that the best way to ensure that SCD research is accessible and informs policy decisions is to use good standardized effect size measures—indices that put results on a scale with the same meaning across studies—for statistical analyses. Included in this paper are the authors' recommendations for how SCD researchers can calculate and report on standardized between-case effect sizes, the way in these effect sizes can be used for various audiences (including policymakers) to interpret findings, and how they can be used across studies to summarize the evidence base for education practices.
NCER 20142000 Partially Nested Randomized Controlled Trials in Education Research: A Guide to Design and Analysis

In some tests of educational interventions, individual students are randomized directly to the treatment or control group, and both intervention and control protocols are administered in an individual setting. Such an experiment is an Individual-Level Randomized Controlled Trial (I-RCT). In other tests, clusters of students (e.g., classrooms) are randomized. This sort of experiment is called a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (C-RCT). However, in some designs, students in the treatment group are clustered like those in a C-RCT, but students in the control group are unclustered, like students in an I-RCT. This design is called a Partially Nested Randomized Controlled Trial (PN-RCT). It is partially nested because students in the treatment group are nested in some higher level unit, such as a tutoring group or class, but students in the control group are not nested as part of the experimental design.

This paper, commissioned by the National Center for Education Research, provides readers with an introduction to PN-RCTs and ways to design and analyze the results from them. This paper was written primarily for applied education researchers with introductory knowledge of quantitative impact evaluation methods. However, those with more advanced knowledge will also benefit from some of the technical examples and appendices.

  • Chapters 1 and 2 define PN-RCTs and address design issues such as possibilities for random assignment, cluster formation, statistical power, and confounding factors that may mask the contribution of the intervention.
  • Chapter 3 discusses basic statistical models that adjust for the clustering of treatment students within intervention clusters, associated computer code for estimation, and a step-by-step guide, using examples, on how to estimate the models and interpret the output.
  • Chapter 4 and the technical appendixes discuss more advanced statistical topics pertaining to PN-RCTs.
NCSER 20143000 Improving Reading Outcomes for Students with or at Risk for Reading Disabilities: A Synthesis of the Contributions from the Institute of Education Sciences Research Centers
The report describes what has been learned regarding the improvement of reading outcomes for children with or at risk for reading disabilities through research funded by the Institute's National Center for Education Research and National Center for Special Education Research and published in peer-reviewed outlets through December 2011. The synthesis describes contributions to the knowledge base produced by IES-funded research across four focal areas:
  • Assessment: What have we learned about effective identification and assessment of students who have or are at risk for reading difficulties or disabilities?
  • Basic Cognitive and Linguistic Processes: What are the basic cognitive and linguistic processes that support successful reading and how can these skills be improved for students who have or who are at risk for reading disabilities?
  • Intervention: How do we make reading instruction more effective for students who have or are at risk for developing reading disabilities? How do we teach reading to students with low incidence disabilities?
  • Professional Development: How do we bring research-based instructional practices to the classroom?
NCER 2013PUBS National Center for Education Research Publication Handbook: Publications from funded education research grants FY 2002 to FY 2013 November
Since its inception in 2002, the National Center for Education Research (NCER) in the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) has funded over 700 education research grants and over 60 education training grants. The research grants have supported have supported exploratory research to build theory or generate hypotheses on factors that may affect educational outcomes, development and innovation research to create or refine academic interventions, evaluation studies to test the efficacy and effectiveness of interventions, and measurement work to help develop more accurate and valid assessments, and the training grants have helped prepare the next generation of education researchers. NCER‘s education research grantees have focused on the needs of a wide range of students, from pre-kindergarten through postsecondary and adult education, and have tackled a variety of topic areas. The portfolio of research includes cognition, social and behavioral research, math, science, reading, writing, school systems and policies, teacher quality, statistical and research methods, just to name a few.

Each year, our grantees are contributing to the wealth of knowledge across disciplines. What follows is a listing of the publications that these grants have contributed along with a full listing of all the projects funded through NCER's education research grant programs from 2002 to 2013. The publications are presented according to the topic area and arranged by the year that the grant was awarded. Where applicable, we have noted related grant projects and project websites and have provided links to publications that are listed in the IES ERIC database. For grants that do not yet have associated publications in press or published, we include the word Publications as a placeholder to denote where future publications will occur during updates to this document.
NCSER 20133001 Synthesis of IES Research on Early Intervention and Early Childhood Education
The report describes what has been learned from research grants on early intervention and early childhood education funded by the Institute's National Center for Education Research and National Center for Special Education Research, and published in peer-reviewed outlets through June 2010. This synthesis describes contributions to the knowledge base produced by IES-funded research across four focal areas:
* Early childhood classroom environments and general instructional practices;
* Educational practices designed to impact children's academic and social outcomes;
* Measuring young children's skills and learning; and
* Professional development for early educators.
Research supported by IES has made significant contributions to the evidence base in these areas. The authors also raise important questions for education research in the future, including:
* What are the crucial features of high-quality early childhood education?
* Which instruction is most effective for which children and under what circumstances?
* How do we effectively and efficiently support teachers in improving their instruction?
NPEC 2012835 Defining and Reporting Subbaccalaureate Certificates in IPEDS
Subbaccalaureate certificates, postsecondary awards conferred as the result of successful completion of a formal program of study below the baccalaureate level, have become more prominent in higher education over the last decade. Institutions of all sectors offer subbaccalaureate certificates, which can range in length from a few months to more than 2 years. Subbaccalaureate certificates provide individuals with a means for gaining specific skills and knowledge that can be readily transferred to the workforce. As part of its mission to promote the quality, comparability, and utility of postsecondary data, the National Postsecondary Education Cooperative (NPEC) convened a working group to examine subbaccalaureate certificates and how they are reported in the U.S. Department of Education's Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS).
NPEC 2012831 Information Required to Be Disclosed Under the Higher Education Act of 1965: Suggestions for Dissemination – A Supplemental Report
In 2009, the National Postsecondary Education Cooperative (NPEC) issued a report that provided suggestions on how postsecondary institutions could meet disclosure requirements under the Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA), as amended by the Higher Education Opportunity Act (HEOA) of 2008. This paper was commissioned by NPEC to determine if institutions were implementing the suggestions in its 2009 report. This paper identifies how institutions have implemented the NPEC’s 2009 report suggestions on presenting disclosure requirements. Additionally, this report identifies other resources and tools that could be used by institutions to present disclosure requirements in a consumer-friendly manner.
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