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 Pub Number  Title  Date
NCES 2022080REV A Retrospective Look at U.S. Education Statistics
This commemorative guide provides an overview of the history and use of federal education statistics that have been collected and reported by the federal education statistics agency (now the National Center for Education Statistics) since 1868. The “statistical profiles” in this report use updated historical trend data from 120 Years of American Education: A Statistical Portrait to offer an in-depth look at what each statistic measures, how it has been collected over the years, and what the data reveal about the statistic. First published with nine statistical profiles in November 2022, the report was updated in April 2024 to include additional content. Examples of statistics covered in the report include elementary and secondary student enrollment and achievement; high school graduates and graduation rates, and postsecondary student costs, degrees conferred, and finances. Readers can browse these profiles online and download PDFs of individual profiles.
4/25/2024
REL 2024004 Assessing the Validity and Reliability of the Pennsylvania School Climate Survey for Elementary School Students
The Pennsylvania Department of Education’s (PDE’s) Office for Safe Schools partnered with REL Mid-Atlantic to conduct a study analyzing the validity and reliability from PDE’s school climate survey for elementary school students. This survey, which is available on a voluntary basis to any school in the state, provides a way for schools to track their school climate and identify aspects of school climate that need additional support. The analysis examined the three domains of the PDE school climate survey: (1) social-emotional learning, (2) safe and respectful school climate, and (3) student support and academic engagement. The study found that the items in each of the three domains measured the constructs that they intended to measure and that the three domains were distinct from one another. However, one domain—safe and respectful school climate—fell short of the established threshold for reliability based on the correlations among the items within the domain. As a result, the study team recommended revisions to the safe and respectful school climate domain of the elementary school student survey to improve its internal consistency reliability.
4/15/2024
NCES 2024043 Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools: Findings From the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2021-22
The National Center for Education Statistics collects data on crime and violence in U.S. public schools through the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). This First Look report presents findings from the 2021–22 School Survey on Crime and Safety data collection.
1/17/2024
NCES 2023032 Equity in Education Dashboard
The Equity in Education Dashboard website contains key findings and trends on educational equity in the United States from a variety of data sources.
9/14/2023
NFES 2023050 Forum Guide to Discipline Data
The Forum Guide to Discipline Data is designed to help education agencies collect, manage, report, and use discipline data. The guide discusses the importance of discipline data and how these data have changed over time, provides key considerations for data management and staff training, and identifies data reporting and use best practices. It is intended for education agency staff involved in collecting and using discipline data to improve student outcomes; promote positive, productive, and safe learning environments; and ensure equity in education. This audience includes staff responsible for reporting accurate and timely data to the federal government.
9/1/2023
REL 2023003 Changes in school climate during COVID-19 in a sample of Pennsylvania schools
To assess how school climate changed during the pandemic, the Pennsylvania Department of Education's (PDE's) Office for Safe Schools partnered with REL Mid-Atlantic to conduct a study using data from PDE's school climate survey. This survey, which is available on a voluntary basis to any school in the state, provides a way to track school climate and identify schools that need additional support to improve school climate. The REL study analyzed changes in scores from a pre-pandemic year (2018/19) to the 2020/21 and 2021/22 school years. In a sample of Pennsylvania public schools that took the survey in all three years, students and teachers reported more positive perceptions of school climate in the 2020/21 school year, during hybrid and remote learning, compared to 2018/19 (before the pandemic) and 2021/22 (when schools had returned to fully in-person operation). This was an unexpected positive bump in the year in which schools experienced the most pandemic-related disruption. In contrast, school climate scores were steady across the years before COVID-19. The study also found no evidence of a significant decline in school climate scores between 2018/19 and 2021/22, suggesting the pandemic did not have a lasting negative effect on school climate in this sample of schools. One important caveat of this study is that the sample of schools was small and not representative of the rest of the state of Pennsylvania. In the future, increasing the number of schools completing the school climate survey over multiple years will allow PDE to conduct more informative analyses of the relationship between school climate and other factors, such as interventions to improve school climate.
8/10/2023
NCES 2023055 Overview of the Middle Grades Longitudinal Study of 2017–18 (MGLS:2017): Technical Report
This technical report provides general information about the study and the data files and technical documentation that are available. Information was collected from students, their parents or guardians, their teachers, and their school administrators. The data collection included direct and indirect assessments of middle grades students’ mathematics, reading, and executive function, as well as indirect assessments of socioemotional development in 2018 and again in 2020. MGLS:2017 field staff provided additional information about the school environment through an observational checklist.
3/16/2023
NCES 2022029 Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools in 2019-20: Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety
The National Center for Education Statistics collects data on crime and violence in U.S. public schools through the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). This First Look report presents findings from the 2019–20 SSOCS data collection.
7/12/2022
REL 2021114 Using a survey of social and emotional learning and school climate to inform decisionmaking

The District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) has prioritized efforts to support students' social and emotional learning (SEL) competencies, such as perseverance and social awareness. To measure students' SEL competencies and the school experiences that promote SEL competencies (school climate), DCPS began administering annual surveys to students, teachers, and parents in 2017/18. DCPS partnered with the Mid-Atlantic Regional Educational Laboratory to study how the district could use these surveys to improve students' outcomes. The study found the following:

  • Students' SEL competencies and school experiences are the most favorable in elementary school and the least favorable in middle school and the beginning of high school. This pattern suggests that schools might provide targeted supports before or during grades 6-10 to promote SEL competencies and school experiences when students need the most support.
  • The trajectories of students' SEL competencies and school experiences differed in different schools, to a similar degree as trajectories in academic measures like test scores. To understand why changes in SEL competencies and school experiences differ across schools, DCPS could explore differences in practices between schools with better and worse trajectories. In addition, DCPS could provide targeted support to schools with lower levels of positive change.
  • Of the SEL competencies and school experiences in DCPS's survey, self-management—how well students control their emotions, thoughts, and behavior—is most related to students' later academic outcomes. Programs or interventions that target self-management might have the most potential for improving students' outcomes compared to those that target other SEL competencies or school experiences.
  • In statistical models designed to predict students' future academic outcomes, SEL competency and school experience data add little accuracy beyond prior academic outcomes (such as achievement test scores and attendance) and demographic characteristics. Prior academic outcomes and demographic characteristics predict later outcomes with a high degree of accuracy, and they may implicitly incorporate the SEL competencies and school experiences. These findings suggest that DCPS would not need to use SEL competencies and school experiences to identify whether or not students are at risk of poor academic outcomes.
  • Student, teacher, and parent reports on SEL competencies and school experiences are positively related across schools, but they also exhibit systematic differences, suggesting that some respondent groups may not be aligned in their view of SEL competencies and school experiences. These differences may serve as a tool to help DCPS target efforts to improve communication among students, teachers, and parents.
8/3/2021
NFES 2019163 Forum Guide to Planning for, Collecting, and Managing Data About Students Displaced by a Crisis
The Forum Guide to Planning for, Collecting, and Managing Data About Students Displaced by a Crisis provides timely and useful best practice information for collecting and managing data about students who have temporarily or permanently enrolled in another educational setting because of a crisis. This guide updates the information included in the 2010 publication Crisis Data Management: A Forum Guide to Collecting and Managing Data about Displaced Students; highlights best practices that education agencies can adopt before, during, and after a crisis; and features case studies and real-world examples from agencies that have either experienced a crisis or received students who were displaced by a crisis.
9/25/2019
NCES 2018098 Measuring School Climate Using the 2015 School Crime Supplement: Technical Report
This report uses data from the 2015 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to develop school climate measures and identify differences in scores for various student demographics including students experiencing or not experiencing criminal victimization and bullying.
10/30/2018
NCES 2017156 2015-16 National Teacher and Principal Survey (NTPS) Restricted-Use Data Files
This DVD contains the 2015-16 National Teacher and Principal Survey (NTPS) restricted-use data files. The 3 files (Public School Principal, Public School, and Public School Teacher) are provided in multiple formats. The DVD also contains a 4-volume User's Manual, which includes a codebook for each file.
11/16/2017
REL 2017210 Short-term impacts of student listening circles on student perceptions of school climate and of their own competencies
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the short-term impacts of participation in a student voice facilitation strategy—a Student Listening Circle (SLC)—on student perceptions of their input into decisionmaking at school, their relationships with school staff and peers, school bonding, their competencies for improving the school, and academic self-efficacy. The study also examined adult participants' perceptions before and after the SLC and describes how SLCs are conducted in study schools. To investigate impacts of SLC participation on students, 90 of the 256 students who volunteered to participate in the study were randomly assigned to participate in the SLC (treatment group). The remaining 166 students did not participate directly in the SLC (control group). The study took place in 9 schools in California, with random assignment conducted within each school. Both groups of students completed surveys to ascertain perceptions of school climate and personal competencies 1 week before SLC implementation, 1 week after SLC implementation, and 12 weeks after SLC implementation. SLC impacts were estimated by comparing survey responses between the treatment group and the control group at 1 week and at 12 weeks after SLC implementation. The secondary component of the study used staff surveys to assess changes in adult SLC participants' perceptions of school supports and of student competencies after the SLC, and interviews to assess their perceptions of practices implemented as a result of the SLC. The main experimental results of the study found no discernible effects of the SLC on student participants' perceptions of school climate and personal competencies. Descriptive results indicated that participating school staff reported greater average perceptions of students' abilities to contribute to school improvement, trust in students, and perceptions of student opportunities for meaningful participation at school after the SLC than they did before the SLC. Moreover, schools that implemented SLCs followed through with most action steps generated during the SLCs and implemented multiple school improvement practices to address themes suggested during the SLC. The fact that this study found no short-term impacts of SLC participation on students' perceptions of school climate or of their competencies does not necessarily mean that there is no value in implementing SLCs. SLCs are intended to produce improvements in the overall school environment, including on such factors as school-wide governance and perceptions of adults and students who do not participate in the SLC. It is possible for the SLC to have no discernable impacts on student participants but to still have impacts on school climate.
2/1/2017
REL 2017212 How are middle school climate and academic performance related across schools and over time?
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between school climate and academic performance in two different ways: (1) by comparing the academic performance of different schools with different levels of school climate and (2) by examining how changes in a school's climate were associated with changes in its students' academic achievement. To examine how school climate and academic performance are related, this study analyzed grade 7 student data from 2004/05 to 2010/11 from the California Healthy Kids Survey, the California Standardized Testing and Reporting program, and the California Basic Educational Data System for 978 middle schools in California. School climate was measured by a set of student survey questions that assessed students' perceptions about six domains of school climate. Schools with positive school climates were those in which students reported high levels of safety/connectedness, caring relationships with adults, and meaningful student participation, as well as low levels of substance use at school, bullying/discrimination, and student delinquency. Regression models were used to estimate the relationship between student-reported school climate and students' average academic performance across schools. Regression models were also used to estimate how, for a given school, academic performance changes as school climate changes. All models included controls for racial/ethnic composition, percentage of English learners, and percentage of students eligible for free/reduced-price meals. The study found that (1) middle schools with higher levels of positive student-reported school climate exhibited higher levels of academic performance; (2) increases in a school's level of positive student-reported school climate were associated with simultaneous increases in that school's academic achievement; and (3) within-school increases in academic achievement associated with school climate increases were substantially smaller than the academic performance differences across schools with different school climate levels. As positive school climate is continuing to gain more attention as a lever to improve student learning, there is increasing interest in how improvements in school climate are related to improvements in academic performance. Most studies examining the school climate-academic performance relationship compare the academic achievement across schools with different levels of school climate. Although the results of this study found that schools with high levels of positive school climate exhibited substantially higher levels of academic performance than their counterparts with low levels of positive school climate, such differences across schools were not an accurate guide for predicting the magnitude of school-specific gains in academic performance associated with increases in school climate.
1/31/2017
REL 2017186 Stated Briefly: Relationship between school professional climate and teachers' satisfaction with the evaluation process
This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. This study, conducted by the Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands in collaboration with the Northeast Educator Effectiveness Research Alliance, reports on the relationship between teachers' perceptions of school professional climate and their satisfaction with their formal evaluation process using the responses of a nationally representative sample of teachers from the Schools and Staffing Surveys. Specifically, the study used logistic regression analysis to examine whether teachers' satisfaction with their evaluation was associated with two measures of school professional climate (principal leadership and teacher influence), teacher and school characteristics, and the inclusion of student test scores in the evaluation system. The results indicate that teachers' perceptions of their principals' leadership was associated with their satisfaction with the evaluation system—the more positively teachers rated their principal's leadership, the more likely they were to report satisfaction with their evaluation process. The rating teachers received on their evaluation was also associated with their satisfaction, with those rated satisfactory or higher more likely to be satisfied. Teachers whose evaluation process included student test score outcomes were less likely to be satisfied with that process than teachers whose evaluations did not include student test scores. The findings reinforce current literature about the importance of the school principal in establishing positive school professional climate. The report recommends additional research related to the implementation of new educator evaluation systems.
10/4/2016
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