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 Pub Number  Title  Date
NFES 2021110 Forum Guide to Metadata
The Forum Guide to Metadata presents and examines the ways in which metadata can be used by education agencies to improve data quality and promote a better understanding of education data. Supported by metadata-related case studies from state and local education agencies, the guide highlights the uses of metadata from a technical point of view, as well as the perspectives of data management, data reporting and use, and data privacy and security. The guide further discusses how to plan and successfully implement a metadata system in an education setting and provides examples of standard metadata items and definitions to assist agencies with standardization.
REL 2021104 Using High School and College Data to Predict Teacher Candidates' Performance on the Praxis at Unibetsedåt Guåhan (University of Guam)

Policymakers and educators on Guåhan (Guam) are concerned about the persistent shortage of qualified K-12 teachers. Staff at the Unibetsedåt Guåhan (University of Guam, UOG) School of Education, the only local university that offers a teacher training and certification program, believe that more students are interested in becoming teachers but that the program's admissions requirements--in particular, the Praxis® Core test, which consists of reading, writing, and math subtests--might be a barrier. Little is known about the predictors for passing the Praxis Core test. This makes it difficult to develop and implement targeted interventions to help students pass the test and prepare for the program.

This study examined which student demographic and academic preparation characteristics predict passing the Praxis Core test and each of its subtests. The study examined two groups of students who attempted at least one subtest within three years of enrolling at UOG: students who graduated from a Guåhan public high school (group 1) and all students, regardless of the high school from which they graduated (group 2). Just over half the students in each group passed the Praxis Core test (passed all three subtests) within three years of enrolling at UOG. The pass rate was lower on the math subtest than on the reading and writing subtests. For group 1, students who earned credit for at least one semester of Advanced Placement or honors math courses in high school had a higher pass rate on the Praxis Core test than students who did not earn any credit for those courses, students who earned a grade of 92 percent or higher in grade 10 English had a higher pass rate on the reading subtest than students who earned a lower grade, and students who earned a grade higher than 103 percent in grade 10 English had a higher pass rate on the writing subtest than students who earned a lower grade. For group 2, students who did not receive a Pell Grant (a proxy for socioeconomic status) had a higher Praxis Core test pass rate than students who did receive a Pell Grant, students who earned a grade of B or higher in first-year college English had a higher Praxis Core test pass rate than students who earned a lower grade, and male students had a higher pass rate on the reading and math subtests than female students.

The study findings have several implications for intervention plans at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. Although students must pass all three Praxis subtests to be admitted to the teacher preparation program at the School of Education, examining student performance on each subtest can help stakeholders understand the content areas in which students might need more support. In the long term preparing more prospective teachers for the Praxis Core test might increase program enrollment, which in turn might increase the on-island hiring pool.

REL 2021092 Using High School Data to Explore Early College Success on Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia
As of 2010, about 15 percent of residents older than age 25 on Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) had completed an associate degree or higher. To increase the number of college graduates, the Pohnpei Department of Education and the College of Micronesia-FSM are working together to improve the early college outcomes of their students. They noted that in 2018, 42 percent of applicants from Pohnpei to the College of Micronesia-FSM were not admitted or were admitted to a one-year nondegree certificate program. No studies have examined possible links between high school academic preparation in the FSM and early college success outcomes, such as the college entrance test result. Examining these links could inform strategies to improve degree attainment. Using data on Pohnpei public high school graduates from 2016 to 2018 provided by the Pohnpei Department of Education and the College of Micronesia-FSM, this study examined high school academic preparation characteristics and college student characteristics to determine whether they are associated with five early college success outcomes: College of Micronesia-FSM Entrance Test result; placement in credit-bearing math, reading, and writing courses; and persistence to a second year. The study found that high school grade point average was positively associated with all five outcomes. Students who were enrolled in the high school academic coursework track were more likely than students who were enrolled in the business and vocational tracks to be admitted to a degree program and to enroll in credit-bearing reading courses. College students who first enrolled at the College of Micronesia-FSM in the summer term immediately after high school graduation were more likely to persist to a second year than those who first enrolled in the fall term.
NCES 2021524 2012 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:12) Student Records Collection Data File Documentation: Research Data File Documentation
This publication describes the methodology used in the 2012 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:12) Student Records Collection research datafile, a release of exploratory administrative data that are made available only for research on institution response and imputation methodologies. As a result of low institutional response rates, population estimates are NOT advised. Specifically, these data should NOT be used to generate population estimates or analyze the postsecondary records of this BPS cohort. This release includes student-level data for a nationally representative sample of over 35,000 first-time beginning postsecondary students who began postsecondary education during the 2011-12 academic year. Efforts, albeit unsuccessful, were made to collect student level data on enrollment, student budget, and financial aid from postsecondary education institutions attended between the 2011–12 and 2016–17 academic years.
NCES 2021029 2012–2016 Program for International Student Assessment Young Adult Follow-up Study (PISA YAFS): How reading and mathematics performance at age 15 relate to literacy and numeracy skills and education, workforce, and life outcomes at age 19
This Research and Development report provides data on the literacy and numeracy performance of U.S. young adults at age 19, as well as examines the relationship between that performance and their earlier reading and mathematics proficiency in PISA 2012 at age 15. It also explores how other aspects of their lives at age 19—such as their engagement in postsecondary education, participation in the workforce, attitudes, and vocational interests—are related to their proficiency at age 15.
REL 2021052 An Approach to Using Student and Teacher Data to Understand and Predict Teacher Shortages
Addressing teacher shortages has been a persistent concern among leaders in schools, districts, state education agencies, and the federal government. This report describes an approach to identifying patterns of teacher shortages that was collaboratively developed by the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education and the Regional Educational Laboratory Central. The approach is implemented using widely available software. It can be adopted or adapted by education agencies that wish to understand and predict teacher shortages, including shortage trends in content and certification areas, in their own contexts. Education agencies may also use teacher shortage predictions to inform efforts to address inequities in students’ access to excellent educators.
NCES 2021176 2012 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:12) Postsecondary Education Transcript Study (PETS): Data File Documentation
This publication describes the methodology used in the 2012/17 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study Postsecondary Education Transcript Study. BPS:12 PETS is the third data release for a study of a nationally representative sample of first-time beginning postsecondary students who were surveyed 3 times over 6 academic years, in 2011-12, 2014, and 2017. Postsecondary academic transcripts were requested from all institutions attended by sample members. These transcript data include detailed information, by institution attended and by time periods, on enrollment, degree programs, fields of study, course taking, credit accumulation, and academic performance.
REL 2020027 Using Data from Schools and Child Welfare Agencies to Predict Near-Term Academic Risks
This study provides information to administrators, research offices, and student support offices in local education agencies (LEAs) interested in identifying students who are likely to have near-term academic problems such as absenteeism, suspensions, poor grades, and low performance on state tests. It describes an approach for developing a predictive model and assesses how well the model identifies at-risk students using data from two LEAs in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. It also examines which types of predictors—including those from school, social services, and justice system data systems—are individually related to each type of near-term academic problem to better understand the causes of why students might be flagged as at risk by the model and how best to support them. The study finds that predictive models which apply machine-learning algorithms to the data are able to identify at-risk students with a moderate to high level of accuracy. Data from schools are the strongest predictors across all outcomes, and predictive performance is not reduced much when excluding social services and justice system predictors and relying exclusively on school data. However, some out-of-school events are individually related to near-term academic problems, including child welfare involvement, emergency homeless services, and juvenile justice system involvement. The models are more accurate in a larger LEA than in a smaller charter network, and they are better at predicting low GPA, course failure, and below basic performance on state assessments in grades 3-8 than they are for chronic absenteeism, suspensions, and below basic performance on end-of-course high-school standardized assessments. Results suggest that many LEAs could apply machine-learning algorithms to existing school data to identify students who are at-risk of near-term academic problems that are known to be precursors to dropout.
NCES 2020047 U.S. PIAAC Skills Map: State and County Indicators of Adult Literacy and Numeracy
The U.S. PIAAC Skills Map allows users to access estimates of adult literacy and numeracy proficiency in all U.S. states and counties through heat maps and summary card displays. It also provides estimates of the precision of its indicators and facilitates statistical comparisons among states and counties. The users guide explains reporting practices and statistical methods that are needed to accurately use these state and county estimates and it provides examples of common uses.
NCES 2020441 2016/17 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:16/17)
This publication describes the methods and procedures used in the 2016/17 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:16/17). These graduates, who completed the requirements for a bachelor’s degree during the 2015–16 academic year, were first interviewed as part of the 2016 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:16), and then followed up one year later in 2017. B&B:16/17 is the first follow-up interview of this cohort. This report details the methodology and outcomes of the B&B:16/17 student interview data collection and administrative records matching.
NCES 2020522 Beginning Postsecondary Students Study 12/17 (BPS:12/17): Data File Documentation
This publication describes the methodology used in the 2012/17 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:12/17). BPS:12/17 is the second and final follow-up study of students who began postsecondary education in the 2011 – 12 academic year. These students were first interviewed as part of the 2011 – 12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12). In particular, this report details the methodology and outcomes of the BPS:12/17 sample design, student interview design, student interview data collection processes, administrative records matching, data file processing, and weighting procedures. The BPS study is unique in that it includes both traditional and nontraditional students, follows their paths through postsecondary education over the course of 6 years, and is not limited to enrollment at a single institution.
NCEE 20194008 Evaluation of Support for Using Student Data to Inform Teachers' Instruction
Most districts help teachers use data to improve student learning, often supporting this effort with federal funds. But many teachers feel unprepared to use student data to inform their instruction — referred to as data-driven instruction (DDI) — and there is little evidence of whether it improves student achievement. This report assesses an intensive approach to supporting teachers' use of student data to tailor their instruction. The report found that this specific approach to DDI did not improve students' achievement, perhaps because the approach did not change teachers' reported use of data or classroom practices.
REL 2017269 Comparing enrollment, characteristics, and academic outcomes of students in developmental courses and those in credit-bearing courses at Northern Marianas College
This study reports on the academic outcomes of full-time first time freshman seeking associate degrees who entered Northern Marianas College from fall semester 2008 through fall semester 2010. In English, 80.1 percent of these students enrolled in developmental courses; in math, 91 percent enrolled in developmental courses. To determine their academic outcomes, these students were tracked for eight semesters after their first year in college. The study found that students who initially enrolled in credit-bearing English or math classes had consistently more positive outcomes than students who initially enrolled in non-credit developmental English or math courses.
REL 2017268 Using high school data to understand college readiness in the Northern Mariana Islands
This report examines the college readiness of public high school graduates in the Northern Mariana Islands as measured by whether the graduates were placed in developmental college courses or credit bearing college courses at Northern Marianas College. The study examined the high school records of recent graduates of the public school system in the Northern Mariana Islands who entered Northern Marianas College from fall semester 2010 through spring semester 2014. Demographic information was available about students' gender, ethnicity, primary language spoken at home, and economic need (based on whether or not students received Pell grants). The study found that 19.6 percent of students placed into credit-bearing English courses. Nearly 23 percent of female students, compared to about 16 percent of male students, placed into credit-bearing English courses. In math, 7.8 percent of students placed into credit-bearing courses. Students who did not receive Pell grants were more likely to place into credit-bearing math courses.
REL 2017240 School discipline data indicators: A guide for districts and schools
Disproportionate rates of suspension for students of color are a local, state, and national concern. In particular, African American, Hispanic/Latino(a), and American Indian students experience suspensions more frequently than their White peers. Disciplinary actions that remove students from classroom instruction undermine their academic achievement and weaken their connection with school. This REL Northwest guide is designed to help educators use data to reduce disproportionate rates of suspension and expulsion based on race or ethnicity. It provides examples of selecting and analyzing data to determine whether racial disproportionality exists in a school or district's discipline practices. The guide also describes how to apply the Plan-Do-Study-Act continuous improvement cycle to inform intervention decisions and monitor progress toward desired outcomes.
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