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 Pub Number  Title  Date
REL 2014039 The Appropriateness of a California Student and Staff Survey for Measuring Middle School Climate
The purpose of this study was to examine the appropriateness of using student and staff self-report surveys—the California School Climate, Health, and Learning Survey (Cal-SCHLS)—to assess school climate in middle schools. The study examined (a) the domains of school climate assessed by the surveys; (b) the reliability of the surveys at both the respondent and school levels; (c) the stability of the survey measures over time; and (d) the relationship of the survey measures to student achievement and discipline. The results suggested that the Cal-SCHLS student survey can be used to validly and reliably assess the following six school-climate domains at the school level: (a) safety and connectedness; (b) caring relationships with adults; (c) meaningful participation; (d) substance use at schools; (e) bullying and discrimination; and (f) delinquency. The Cal-SCHLS teacher survey can also be used to validly and reliably assess six domains: (a) support and safety; (b) caring staff-student relationships; (c) staff peer relationships; (d) student health and engagement; (e) student delinquency; and (f) resource provision. The surveys may help educators identify building-level needs related to school climate, target supports and reforms, and monitor progress in climate improvement efforts.
9/23/2014
REL 2014033 Disproportionality in school discipline: An assessment of trends in Maryland, 2009–12
This study examines whether disproportionate rates of suspensions and expulsions exist for racial/ethnic minority students and special education students in Maryland during the period 2009/10 to 2011/12. The study found that disproportionalities between Black and White students increased in 2011/12 despite an overall decrease in the number of out-of-school suspensions and expulsions. Moreover, black students receive out-of-school suspensions or expulsions at more than twice the rate of White students. In addition, special education students are removed from school at more than twice the rate of students who are not in special education. This “Stated Briefly” report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name, released on March 5, 2014.
6/17/2014
REL 2014028 Suspension and Expulsion Patterns in Six Oregon School Districts
This Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Northwest study identifies how frequently students in six selected urban districts received exclusionary discipline during the 2011/12 school year, the most common reasons for such discipline, the percentage of students receiving multiple suspensions, and how many school days students lost to suspensions. The study also examined the application of exclusionary discipline at different grade spans and by student gender, race/ethnicity, and special education status.

Key findings include:
  • During 2011/12, 6.4 percent of students were removed from regular classroom instruction because they were suspended or expelled. The most common reasons were physical and verbal aggression and insubordination/disruption.
  • Nearly 40 percent of students who were suspended received more than one suspension over the school year.
  • The average number of school days suspended among students receiving at least one suspension was 3.3 days.
5/6/2014
REL 2014017 Disproportionality in School Discipline: An Assessment of Trends in Maryland, 2009–12
This study examines whether disproportionate rates of suspensions and expulsions exist for racial/ethnic minority students and special education students in Maryland during the period 2009/10 to 2011/12. The study found that disproportionalities between Black and White students increased in 2011/12 despite an overall decrease in the number of out-of-school suspensions and expulsions. Moreover, black students receive out-of-school suspensions or expulsions at more than twice the rate of White students. In addition, special education students are removed from school at more than twice the rate of students who are not in special education.
3/5/2014
WWC SSR10052 WWC Review of the Report "Assessing the Effectiveness of First Step to Success: Are Short-term Results the First Step to Long-term Behavioral Improvements?"
The 2013 study, Assessing the Effectiveness of First Step to Success: Are Short-term Results the First Step to Long-term Behavioral Improvements?, examined the effects of First Step to Success (First Step), a school- and home-based program intended to improve outcomes for students with moderate to severe behavior problems who may be at risk for academic failure. Researchers randomly assigned 48 elementary schools from across five states to either an intervention group that received the First Step program or a comparison group that received regular instruction. Study authors measured the effects of First Step by comparing parent, teacher, and researcher assessments of student behavior for students in the intervention and comparison groups. While 10 outcomes were measured, only three met WWC evidence standards with reservations: academic engaged time (the proportion of time a student is academically involved), problem behavior, and academic competence. Although the schools were randomly assigned to the intervention and comparison groups, the students who were selected to participate in the study may have differed systematically across the schools. In particular, teachers' selection of the students for the study and the parental consent process both occurred after randomization and, therefore, both of these processes could have been affected by knowledge of the school's research condition. Because of these selection and consent issues, the study was reviewed as a quasi-experimental design by the WWC. The research for the remaining seven outcomes measured did not meet WWC standards.
9/10/2013
WWC SSR217 WWC Review of the Report "Findings from a Randomized Experiment of Playworks: Selected Results from Cohort 1"
The 2012 study, Findings from a Randomized Experiment of Playworks: Selected Results from Cohort 1, examined whether Playworks, a program that utilizes full-time coaches to provide structured play opportunities during recess and class time, reduces the number of disciplinary referrals in 25 low-income elementary schools in five U.S. cities during the 2010–11 school year. The Playworks program includes three main components: structured recess activities, class game time, and the junior coach program. This study is a well-implemented randomized controlled trial with low attrition at the school level, and the research described in the report meets WWC evidence standards without reservations.
5/1/2013
NCES 2012314 Student Victimization in U.S. Schools: Results From the 2009 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey
This report uses data from the 2009 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to examine student criminal victimization and the characteristics of crime victims and nonvictims. It also provides findings on student reports of the presence of gangs and weapons and the availability of drugs and alcohol at school, student reports of bullying and cyberbullying, and fear and avoidance behaviors of crime victims and nonvictims at school.
11/2/2011
NCES 2011322 2009-10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Restricted-Use Data Files and User's Manual
This CD contains restricted-use data for the 2009-10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) in SAS, STATA, SPSS and ASCII formats. It also contains the 2009-10 SSOCS Restricted-Use Data File User's Manual (NCES 2011-321).
6/20/2011
NCES 2010301 The 2009-10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Brochure
This brochure describes the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). Written for respondents, it answers such questions as: What is SSOCS?, Why is SSOCS important?, What topics are covered?, Why was my school selected?, and Where can I find more information about SSOCS?
10/20/2010
NCES 2010334 2007-08 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Public-use Data File Codebook
The 2007-08 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2008) public-use data file codebook contains a list of variables and information about the variables on the SSOCS:2008 public-use data file. Users are provided with weighted and unweighted frequencies for the categorical variables on the file and descriptive statistics for the continuous variables on the file (i.e. sample size, minimum value, maximum value, mean, standard deviation, and median). Variables are listed in the order in which they appear on the data file.
7/23/2010
NCES 2010307 2007-08 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Survey Documentation for Public-use Data File Users
The survey documentation details the design, data collection, and data processing of the 2007-08 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). Information to help data users access and use the 2007-08 SSOCS public-use data file is also included.
7/23/2010
NCES 2010368 2007-08 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Public-use Data File
The 2007-08 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) public-use data file (NCES 2010-368) provides variables related to school safety, including the frequency of school crime and violence, disciplinary actions, and school practices related to the prevention and reduction of crime.

The codebook (NCES 2010-334) and survey documentation (NCES 2010-307) are available through the SSOCS web site and in the NCES Publications and Products catalog.
7/22/2010
NCES 2010320 2005-06 School Survey on Crime and Safety Survey Documentation
This documentation provides comprehensive information about the 2005-06 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), including its purpose, the data collection instrument, the sample design, data collection methods, and data processing procedures.
10/28/2009
NCES 2009328 2007-08 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Restricted-Use Data Files and Codebook and ASCII Layout
This CD contains restricted-use data for the 2007-08 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) in SAS, SPSS and ASCII formats. It also contains the 2007-08 SSOCS Restricted-Use Codebook and ASCII Layout (NCES 2009-327).
5/5/2009
NCES 2009326 Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools, Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2007-08
This First Look report uses data from the 2007-08 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) to examine a range of issues dealing with school crime and safety, such as the frequency of school crime and violence, disciplinary actions, and school practices related to the prevention and reduction of crime. SSOCS is the primary source of school-level data on crime and safety for NCES. Since 1999, it has been administered four times to the principals of nationally representative samples of public primary, middle, high, and combined schools.
5/5/2009
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