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 Pub Number  Title  Date
REL 2021081 Analyzing Teacher Mobility and Retention: Guidance and Considerations Report 2
This applied research methods report is a guide for state and local education agency policymakers and their analysts who are interested in studying teacher mobility and retention. This report is the second in a two-part set and builds on the foundational information in report 1. This report presents guidance on how to interpret differences in mobility and retention rates by teacher, school, or district characteristics; analyze year-to-year trends in mobility and retention; compare mobility and retention rates across districts or states; and examine how the implementation of a policy related to teachers might be associated with teacher mobility or retention.
REL 2021080 Analyzing Teacher Mobility and Retention: Guidance and Considerations Report 1
This applied research methods report is a guide for state and local education agency policymakers and their analysts who are interested in studying teacher mobility and retention. This report provides the foundational information needed to answer policy-relevant research questions related to teacher mobility and retention and presents the decision points and steps necessary for conducting basic mobility and retention analyses.
REL 2021076 Michigan Teachers Who Are Not Teaching: Who Are They, and What Would Motivate Them to Teach?
Statewide teacher shortages in Michigan are impeding efforts to ensure all students equitable access to qualified teachers. To alleviate shortages, education leaders have considered recruiting certified teachers who are not currently teaching (both those who have never taught and those who left teaching). This study analyzed teacher certification and employment data and data from a survey of certified teachers who were not teaching in a Michigan public school in 2017/18 to gather information on the viability of this recruitment option. The report describes the characteristics of these nonteaching certified teachers, the three most important reasons why they are not teaching, and the three most important incentives that would motivate them to teach in a public school in the state. The study found that approximately 61,000 teachers certified in Michigan were not teaching in the state’s public schools in 2017/18. A survey of nonteaching certified teachers found that they most frequently selected wanting a higher salary as one of the three most important reasons why they were not teaching and that they most frequently selected an increase in salary as one of the three most important incentives that would motivate them to teach. Respondents also frequently selected financial incentives, such as allowing retirees to retain their retirement benefits, improving other benefits, and forgiving student loans, as one of their three most important incentives. Nonteaching certified teachers might consider becoming a public school teacher if it were easier and less costly to earn or renew a teaching certificate, if they could more easily obtain a full-time or part-time position, and if they were assured of school leadership support and smaller class sizes or a lighter student load.
REL 2021077 Advanced Placement Participation, Staffing, and Staff Training in the District of Columbia Public Schools
To expand participation in Advanced Placement (AP) courses, several District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) high schools have enacted a policy mandating that all students enroll in one or more AP courses. To promote quality instruction in AP courses, DCPS recommends regular teacher participation in the Advanced Placement Summer Institute (APSI) and is considering recommending that teachers' college major be factored into teacher assignments to AP courses. To better understand this policy and these recommendations, this study examined students' AP exam taking and passing rates in schools that mandate AP course enrollment and in schools that do not, teacher participation in the APSI, and the alignment of AP teachers' college major with the AP course they teach. Three of the four high schools that adopted a mandate on AP course enrollment during the study period had higher AP exam taking and passing rates after their mandate went into place. In three of the five schools that adopted a mandate before or during the study period, the passing rate (grade 10–12 students in the school who passed at least one AP exam as a percentage of all grade 10–12 students in the school) was below 20 percent in every year of the study period, and in a fourth it was below 50 percent in every year. Fewer than one-fifth of AP teachers participated in the APSI at least once every three years. Participation rates were higher in schools offering more AP courses, in schools with lower percentages of racial/ethnic minority students, among teachers whose college major aligned with the AP course they taught, and among more experienced teachers. Among AP teachers with a college major on record, about half had a college major aligned with each specific AP course they taught, and 70 percent had a college major aligned with the broad subject area of each AP course they taught.
NCES 2021305 Highlights of School-Level Finance Data: Selected Findings from the School-Level Finance Survey (SLFS) School Years 2015-16 (FY 16) and 2016-17 (FY 17)

This statistical analysis report presents key findings and other data highlights from School-Level Finance Survey (SLFS) in school years 2015-16 and 2016-17. The report focuses on (1) the completeness and comparability of SLFS data and (2) how the SLFS can be utilized to evaluate differences in resource allocation (as measured by school-level expenditures) across schools, school districts, and states.

In discussing the findings, the report presents district- and state-aggregated information on school-level expenditure data collected through the SLFS, including:

  • universe coverage and survey item response rates, by state;
  • comparison of SLFS finance data with comparable state-level finance data collected through the National Public Education Financial Survey (NPEFS); and
  • statistics on a wide variety of school-level expenditures (and school-level expenditures per pupil), by school characteristics such as urbanicity and school poverty indicators such as Title I eligibility.

The report also includes an assortment of tables and figures to support its key findings on school-level expenditures collected through the SLFS.

REL 2021069 Center- and Program-Level Factors Associated with Turnover in the Early Childhood Education Workforce
Staff turnover is a pressing problem in early childhood education. High turnover can create organizational instability and distract from the care and education mandate of early childhood education centers. The Early Childhood Workforce Development Research Alliance of the Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands wants to better understand the factors associated with turnover in the early childhood educator workforce. Using data from the 2012 National Survey of Early Care and Education, this study found that a low average turnover rate across early childhood education centers obscured systematic variation in turnover patterns across types of centers and programs, with high turnover rates in some types. Higher wages were associated with lower turnover rates across centers. Turnover rates were highest among private-pay centers serving children ages 0–5. Nonwage benefits such as health insurance and retirement benefits and paid time off for professional development were generally unrelated to turnover rates. Educators were also clustered into certain center types based on background characteristics; Black educators and educators with lower educational attainment more likely to work in centers with low wages and high turnover.
NCES 2021007 Outside Jobs Among U.S. Public School Teachers
This Data Point examines the supplemental school year income earned at jobs outside the school system by public school teachers in the United States.
WWC 2021004 Literacy Design Collaborative Intervention Report
This What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) intervention report summarizes the research on Literacy Design Collaborative, a professional development program that aims to support teachers' literacy instruction by providing access to high-quality literacy instructional materials for teachers of kindergarten through grade 12. Teachers implement Literacy Design Collaborative activities in core subject area classes like English language arts, social studies, or science by using 2- to 3-week instructional modules that supplement existing curricula. Teachers get help from Literacy Design Collaborative coaches and from their peers during collaborative planning time. Based on the research, the WWC found that implementing Literacy Design Collaborative has mixed effects on general literacy achievement and has no discernible effects on general social studies achievement.
REL 2021065 Understanding the Teacher Pipeline for Indiana's K-12 Public Schools
Leaders at the Indiana Commission for Higher Education and the Indiana Department of Education are concerned about teacher shortages and want a better understanding of the educator pipeline for Indiana’s K–12 public schools. This study examined the characteristics and outcomes for three cohorts of undergraduate education student in Indiana’s public colleges and universities. This study used longitudinal data for undergraduate education students in the 2010/11–2012/13 cohorts. The study team calculated the proportion of undergraduate education students who completed a bachelor’s degree in education, the proportion of degree completers who earned an initial instructional license, and the proportion of those with licenses who entered teaching in Indiana’s K–12 public schools, describing the demographic characteristics and academic preparation for students who reached those milestones. For those who entered teaching in Indiana’s K–12 public schools, the study team also described their retention and evaluation ratings in their first three years of teaching. The study team used statistical models to examine the extent to which completing a bachelor’s degree in education was related to individual and institutional factors. The study found that 41 percent of the undergraduate students completed a bachelor’s degree in education by 2017/18; among the completers, 55 percent earned an initial instructional license; and among those licensed, 69 percent entered teaching in Indiana public schools. Compared with the initial group of students entering education programs, students who completed a bachelor’s degree, those who earned initial instructional licenses, and those who entered teaching in Indiana public schools were less likely to be from racial/ethnic minority groups or have been eligible for the national school lunch program in high school. The study found that students who entered an education program in their third year of college or later had a lower probability of completing an education degree than students who entered an education program in their first year of college. Students who received Indiana’s 21st Century Scholarship in their first year of college or who received financial aid beyond their first year were more likely to complete a bachelor’s degree in education. However, students who received a Pell Grant were less likely to complete a bachelor’s degree in education. State and teacher education leaders in Indiana may want to prioritize strategies that increase diversity in teacher pipelines and consider a holistic approach to support students from low-income backgrounds which includes both increasing financial aid support to these students and expanding other support resources for them. Higher education institutions may want to encourage students to enroll in education program early in their college years and offer supports to assist students in making informed decisions about majors early on.
NCES 2021009 Digest of Education Statistics, 2019
The 55th in a series of publications initiated in 1962, the Digest's purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of education from prekindergarten through graduate school. The Digest contains data on a variety of topics, including the number of schools and colleges, teachers, enrollments, and graduates, in addition to educational attainment, finances, and federal funds for education, libraries, and international comparisons.
REL 2021060 Integrating Reading Foundations: A Tool for College Instructors of Pre‑service Teachers

The College Instructor’s Guide is designed to assist college instructors build pre-service teacher knowledge of evidence-based strategies to help kindergarten through grade 3 students acquire the language and literacy skills needed to succeed academically. This tool is intended to be used in conjunction with the Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade practice guide, produced by the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC), an investment of the Institute of Education Sciences at the U.S. Department of Education. College instructors may use the lessons in this tool to provide collaborative learning experiences which engage pre-service teachers in activities that will expand their knowledge base as they read, discuss, share, and apply the key ideas and strategies presented in the WWC Practice Guide.

Each lesson in this College Instructor's Guide includes the following:

  • A recommendation reminder that provides a snapshot of the WWC practice guide recommendation and how-to steps for pre-service teachers.
  • Guidance to support college instructors as they teach pre-service teachers about a specific skill, why it is important in learning to read, and how to support that skill in the classroom.
  • Videos that explain foundational reading skills and demonstrate the use of activities intended to improve foundational reading skills with students in grades K-3. Pre-service teachers are asked to complete a video reflection worksheet for each video.
  • Activities for pre-service teachers to complete with peers in the college setting that reinforce foundational skills taught to students in grades K-3.
  • Observation forms to be used in the practicum setting that include guiding questions related to each recommendation to help pre-service teacher’s compare newly learned strategies to observed practices.
REL 2021053 A Second Grade Teacher’s Guide to Supporting Family Involvement in Foundational Reading Skills

This Second Grade Teacher's Guide provides information for second grade teachers on how to support families as they practice foundational reading skills at home. It serves as a companion to the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) practice guide, Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade. Both guides present four research-based recommendations and how-to steps: the WWC guide is for teaching children at school, and this guide is to help teachers support families in practicing foundational reading skills at home.

The information in this Second Grade Teacher's Guide is designed to assist teachers in supporting out-of-school literacy activities that are aligned to classroom instruction, informed by student need, grounded in evidence-based practices, and facilitated by ongoing parent-teacher communication. The Teacher's Guide provides a framework for literacy support activities presented during schools' family literacy nights and parent-teacher conferences. This Teacher's Guide includes:

  • Recommendation Reminders that provide a snapshot of each recommendation and how-to steps from the WWC guide.
  • Teacher Scaffolds that model the language teachers can use with families to describe a specific skill, why it is important in learning to read, and how to support that skill.
  • Family Activities that contain evidence-based literacy activities with easy-to-follow plans, and materials that teachers model and share with families.
  • Family Literacy Videos that show families engaging their child in activities related to the skills teachers modeled during family literacy nights or at parent-teacher conferences.
REL 2021062 Self-Study Guide for Evidence-Based Coaching for Literacy: PreK–Grade 12
This Self-study Guide for Evidence-Based Literacy Coaching PreK-Grade 12 was developed to help improve the effectiveness of literacy coaching in order to increase the knowledge, skill, and ability of teachers to implement evidence-based practices. This self-study guide was designed to help administrators, teacher leaders, and coaches reflect upon literacy coaching strengths and challenges, spark conversations among staff, and identify areas for improvement. The guide provides a template for data collection and guiding questions for discussion that may improve the implementation of literacy coaching, increase the percentage of teachers receiving coaching services that use evidence-based practices in their classrooms, and improve student achievement in literacy.
REL 2021055 Effects of an Inquiry-Oriented Curriculum and Professional Development Program on Grade 7 Students' Understanding of Statistics and on Statistics Instruction
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Supporting Teacher Enactment of the Probability and Statistics Standards (STEPSS) program on classroom instruction and student understanding of grade 7 statistics. This randomized controlled trial in 40 Broward County, Florida, middle schools compared the STEPSS program condition (a 20-day replacement curriculum unit designed to support teaching and learning of the probability and statistics standards in grade 7, along with four days of professional development for teachers) with practice-as-usual statistics instruction and teacher professional development. The initial study sample included 155 grade 7 mathematics teachers and 14,045 grade 7 mathematics students in the 40 schools. The STEPSS program improved student performance on a test of conceptual understanding of statistics and increased the levels of cognitive demand and classroom discourse in classroom statistics instruction. The magnitude of the effect on student performance was 23 percent of one standard deviation, which is comparable to an increase of 9 percentile points for an average student. In addition, the study found that teachers involved students in tasks involving higher levels of cognitive complexity and engaged their students in higher levels of reasoning and discussion about each other’s ideas regarding probability and statistics in the schools where teachers participated in the STEPSS program. The results of this study suggest that school districts should consider implementing the STEPSS program as a way to improve student understanding of and instructional practice in grade 7 statistics. Mathematics programs that are subjected to randomized controlled trials rarely result in positive impacts on student test performance of the magnitude attained in this study.
REL 2021054 How Nebraska Teachers Use and Perceive Summative, Interim, and Formative Data
Teachers have access to more data than ever before, including summative (state-level), interim (benchmark-level), and formative (classroom-level) assessment data. Yet research on how often and why teachers use each type of these data is scarce. The Nebraska Department of Education partnered with the Regional Educational Laboratory Central to conduct a study of teachers and principals in 353 Nebraska schools to learn about teachers’ use and perceptions of summative, interim, and formative data and inform a state-level professional learning plan to support teachers’ data use. The findings indicate that teachers used formative data more often than interim or summative data and they perceived formative data to be more useful. Teachers with the least experience (5 years or less) reported using formative data more often than did teachers with the most experience (22 years or more). Teachers' perceptions of their competence in using data, their attitudes toward data, and their perceptions of organizational supports for data use (professional learning, principal leadership, and computer systems) were each positively associated with teachers' instructional actions with data. When teachers reported greater competence in using data, more positive attitudes toward data, or more organizational supports for data use, they more often took instructional actions with formative and interim data. Teachers with an advanced degree reported that they felt more competent in, and positive toward, using data than did teachers with a bachelor's degree.
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