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|REL 2021081||Analyzing Teacher Mobility and Retention: Guidance and Considerations Report 2
This applied research methods report is a guide for state and local education agency policymakers and their analysts who are interested in studying teacher mobility and retention. This report is the second in a two-part set and builds on the foundational information in report 1. This report presents guidance on how to interpret differences in mobility and retention rates by teacher, school, or district characteristics; analyze year-to-year trends in mobility and retention; compare mobility and retention rates across districts or states; and examine how the implementation of a policy related to teachers might be associated with teacher mobility or retention.
|REL 2021080||Analyzing Teacher Mobility and Retention: Guidance and Considerations Report 1
This applied research methods report is a guide for state and local education agency policymakers and their analysts who are interested in studying teacher mobility and retention. This report provides the foundational information needed to answer policy-relevant research questions related to teacher mobility and retention and presents the decision points and steps necessary for conducting basic mobility and retention analyses.
|REL 2021076||Michigan Teachers Who Are Not Teaching: Who Are They, and What Would Motivate Them to Teach?
Statewide teacher shortages in Michigan are impeding efforts to ensure all students equitable access to qualified teachers. To alleviate shortages, education leaders have considered recruiting certified teachers who are not currently teaching (both those who have never taught and those who left teaching). This study analyzed teacher certification and employment data and data from a survey of certified teachers who were not teaching in a Michigan public school in 2017/18 to gather information on the viability of this recruitment option. The report describes the characteristics of these nonteaching certified teachers, the three most important reasons why they are not teaching, and the three most important incentives that would motivate them to teach in a public school in the state. The study found that approximately 61,000 teachers certified in Michigan were not teaching in the state’s public schools in 2017/18. A survey of nonteaching certified teachers found that they most frequently selected wanting a higher salary as one of the three most important reasons why they were not teaching and that they most frequently selected an increase in salary as one of the three most important incentives that would motivate them to teach. Respondents also frequently selected financial incentives, such as allowing retirees to retain their retirement benefits, improving other benefits, and forgiving student loans, as one of their three most important incentives. Nonteaching certified teachers might consider becoming a public school teacher if it were easier and less costly to earn or renew a teaching certificate, if they could more easily obtain a full-time or part-time position, and if they were assured of school leadership support and smaller class sizes or a lighter student load.
|REL 2021069||Center- and Program-Level Factors Associated with Turnover in the Early Childhood Education Workforce
Staff turnover is a pressing problem in early childhood education. High turnover can create organizational instability and distract from the care and education mandate of early childhood education centers. The Early Childhood Workforce Development Research Alliance of the Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands wants to better understand the factors associated with turnover in the early childhood educator workforce. Using data from the 2012 National Survey of Early Care and Education, this study found that a low average turnover rate across early childhood education centers obscured systematic variation in turnover patterns across types of centers and programs, with high turnover rates in some types. Higher wages were associated with lower turnover rates across centers. Turnover rates were highest among private-pay centers serving children ages 0–5. Nonwage benefits such as health insurance and retirement benefits and paid time off for professional development were generally unrelated to turnover rates. Educators were also clustered into certain center types based on background characteristics; Black educators and educators with lower educational attainment more likely to work in centers with low wages and high turnover.
|REL 2021052||An Approach to Using Student and Teacher Data to Understand and Predict Teacher Shortages
Addressing teacher shortages has been a persistent concern among leaders in schools, districts, state education agencies, and the federal government. This report describes an approach to identifying patterns of teacher shortages that was collaboratively developed by the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education and the Regional Educational Laboratory Central. The approach is implemented using widely available software. It can be adopted or adapted by education agencies that wish to understand and predict teacher shortages, including shortage trends in content and certification areas, in their own contexts. Education agencies may also use teacher shortage predictions to inform efforts to address inequities in students’ access to excellent educators.
|REL 2020022||Investigating the Relationship between Adherence to Connecticut’s Teacher Education and Mentoring Program Requirements and Teacher Retention
This study examined data from Connecticut’s induction and mentoring program for beginning teachers, called the Teacher Education and Mentoring (TEAM) Program. The TEAM Program requires beginning teachers to complete five instructional modules, submit reflection papers, and meet with a mentor. This study explored fidelity of implementation of the TEAM Program, how fidelity of implementation varied across schools and districts, and examined relationships between fidelity of implementation and teacher retention. Fidelity of implementation refers to the extent to which the program was delivered as planned. Researchers calculated fidelity scores for beginning teachers based on whether they completed essential TEAM Program requirements. The sample consisted of 7,708 teachers from four cohorts of beginning teachers in the 170 Connecticut districts who entered TEAM between school years 2012/13 and 2015/16. Researchers used statistical models to examine the relationship between fidelity of implementation and one- and three-year teacher retention. Fidelity of implementation varied across the six TEAM requirements studied, which were grouped into three types: hours of contact between the teacher and mentor, module completion, and reflection paper submission. Fidelity was highest for module completion. Fidelity was lowest for documented contact hours between teachers and mentors. The state’s 30 lowest performing districts had higher fidelity on two out of six requirements of the TEAM Program than higher performing districts in the state; the two requirements were documented contact hours between teachers and mentors and completing five modules. Teachers who completed TEAM requirements with higher fidelity were more likely to stay in the same district and in the Connecticut public school system.
|REL 2020037||Teacher Turnover and Access to Effective Teachers in the School District of Philadelphia
Concerned about the expense of teacher turnover, its disruption to schools and students, and its potential effect on students' access to effective teachers, the School District of Philadelphia partnered with the Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic to better understand students' access to effective teachers and the factors related to teacher turnover. This analysis of differences in teacher effectiveness between and within schools in the district found that teachers of economically disadvantaged, Black, and Hispanic students had lower evaluation scores than teachers of non–economically disadvantaged and White students but similar value-added scores (a measure of teacher effectiveness based on student academic growth). The study also found that each year from 2010/11 through 2016/17, an average of 25 percent of the district’s teachers left their school and 8 percent left the district. During the first five years of teaching, 77 percent of teachers left their school and 45 percent left the district. Turnover rates were highest for teachers who taught middle school grades, teachers who missed more than 10 days of school a year, teachers who identified as Black, teachers who had previously changed schools, and teachers who had low evaluation ratings. Teacher turnover was higher in schools where teachers had a less positive view of the school climate. School climate mattered more for teachers with higher evaluation ratings than for teachers with lower evaluation ratings.
|REL 2020033||Retention, Mobility, and Attrition among School and District Leaders in Colorado, Missouri, and South Dakota
Educators from Colorado, Missouri, and South Dakota share concerns about changes in school and district leadership. They have expressed interest in better understanding school and district leader mobility and attrition, and related factors. This report describes the proportions of school and district leaders who remained in leadership positions in the same schools or districts (stayers), transferred to leadership positions in different schools or districts (movers), or took nonleadership positions or left the state public school system (leavers) in Colorado, Missouri, and South Dakota. The report also describes the extent to which characteristics of principals, schools, and districts were associated with the likelihood of principals being movers or leavers rather than stayers. The authors used administrative data from 2015/16 to 2018/19, provided by the state education agencies. Results suggest that the proportions of school and district leaders who were stayers after one year ranged from 77 to 82 percent and that the proportions of stayers after three years ranged from 51 to 56 percent. After three years, younger principals were more likely to be movers and older principals were more likely to be leavers, compared to their peers. Principals who identified as a racial/ethnic minority and those who earned lower salaries were also more likely to be movers or leavers. In addition, principals were more likely to move from or leave schools that the state identified as needing additional support for improvement and schools in lower-performing districts. Findings suggest that decisionmakers may wish to better understand the causes of leader mobility and attrition and enhance supports for younger principals, principals who identify as a racial/ethnic minority, and principals in low-performing schools.
|REL 2019008||Factors related to teacher mobility and attrition in Colorado, Missouri, and South Dakota
This report describes teacher and school characteristics related to teacher movement within and out of public school systems in Colorado, Missouri, and South Dakota. Stakeholders in each of these states expressed interest in better understanding teacher mobility and attrition and related factors. The authors used administrative data provided by state education agencies to examine the characteristics related to the likelihood that teachers would move to different schools or leave state public school systems from 2015/16 to 2016/17. Results suggest that the likelihood of teachers either moving or leaving was most strongly related to age, years of experience in their schools or districts, special education teaching assignments, average salaries, school demographics and performance, and school state accountability designation. Information about factors that contribute to moving and leaving may help decision-makers improve the policy and practices aimed at attracting and keeping teachers.
|REL 2019001||Teacher retention, mobility, and attrition in Colorado, Missouri, Nebraska, and South Dakota
This report describes rural and nonrural teacher movement within and out of public school systems in Colorado, Missouri, Nebraska, and South Dakota. All four states have high proportions of rural districts and schools. The authors used administrative data provided by state education agencies to examine the percentages of teachers who stayed in the same school, moved to a different school or district, or left a teaching position. Results suggest that the proportions of stayers, movers, and leavers in these states were similar to national statistics and varied substantially across districts within states.
|REL 2018283||Trends in teacher mobility in Texas and associations with teacher, student, and school characteristics
This study provides updated information regarding teacher mobility—defined as teachers moving schools or leaving the public-school system—for Texas public schools during the 2011/12 through 2015/16 school years. Descriptive information on mobility rates is presented at the regional and state levels for each school year. Mobility rates are disaggregated further into destination proportions to describe the proportion of teacher mobility due to within-district movement, between-district movement, and leaving Texas public schools. This study leverages data collected by the Texas Education Agency during the pilot of the Texas Teacher Evaluation and Support System (T-TESS) in 57 school districts in 2014/15. Analyses examine how components of the T-TESS observation rubric are related to school-level teacher mobility rates. During the 2011/12 school year, about 18.7 percent of Texas teachers moved schools within a district, moved between districts, or left the Texas Public School system. By 2015/16, this mobility rate had increased to 22.0 percent. Moving between districts was the primary driver of the increase in mobility rates. Results indicate significant links between mobility and teacher, student, and school demographic characteristics. Teachers with special education certifications left Texas public schools at nearly twice the rate of teachers with other teaching certifications. School-level mobility rates showed significant positive correlations with the proportion of special education, economically disadvantaged, low-performing, and minority students. School-level mobility rates were negatively correlated with the proportion of English learner students. Schools with higher overall observation ratings on the T-TESS rubric tended to have lower mobility rates. Findings from this study will provide state and district policymakers in Texas with updated information about trends and correlates of mobility in the teaching workforce, and offer a systematic baseline for monitoring and planning for future changes. Informed by these findings, policymakers can formulate a more strategic and targeted approach for recruiting and retaining teachers. For instance, instead of using generic approaches to enhance the overall supply of teachers or improve recruitment, more targeted efforts to attract and retain teachers in specific subject areas (for example, special education), in certain stages of their career (for example, novice teachers), and in certain geographic areas are likely to be more productive. Moreover, this analysis may enrich the existing knowledge base about schools’ teacher retention and mobility in relation to the quality of their teaching force, or may inform policy discussions about the importance of a stable teaching force for teaching effectiveness.
|NCES 2017355||Documentation for the First Through Fifth Waves of the 2007–08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study
This report covers all phases of the Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study (BTLS), from survey planning through data file availability. The BTLS follows a sample of public elementary and secondary school teachers who participated in the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), and whose first year of teaching was 2007 or 2008. The BTLS sample includes teachers who leave teaching in the years after the SASS data collection and those who continue to teach either in the same school as the last year or in a different school.
|REL 2018275||Indicators of successful teacher recruitment and retention in Oklahoma rural school districts
The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with successful recruitment and retention of teachers in Oklahoma rural school districts, in order to highlight potential strategies to address Oklahoma’s teaching shortage. The study was designed to identify teacher-level, district-level, and community characteristics in rural Oklahoma that predict which teachers are most likely to be successfully recruited (as defined in this study as having completed a probationary period of employment in a district for three years and obtained tenure status in their fourth year of teaching) and retained (as defined in this study as the duration of employment of tenured teachers in a given school district). For context, the study also explores patterns of teacher job mobility in Oklahoma in rural and nonrual schools. This correlational study covers a 10-year period, the 2005/06 to 2014/15 school years, and uses data from Oklahoma State Department of Education, Office of Educational Quality and Accountability, and community characteristics from data in federal noneducation sources. The study found that teachers who are male, those who have higher postsecondary degrees, and those who have more teaching experience are harder than others to recruit and retain in Oklahoma schools. Another key finding is that for teachers in rural schools, total compensation and increased responsibilities in job assignment (as measured by full-time equivalent and additional nonteaching assignments) are positively associated with successful recruitment and retention. The exploration of the patterns of teacher job mobility in Oklahoma showed that teachers at rural schools have a 70 percent chance of reaching their fourth year of teaching in the same district and, therefore, reaching tenure; this rate is slightly lower than the rates for teachers in nonrural areas. Also, rural school districts in Oklahoma had consistently lower rates of success in recruiting teachers than nonrural school districts from 2006/07 to 2011/12. In conclusion, the evidence provided by this study can be used to inform incentive schemes to help retain certain groups of teachers and increase retention rates overall. In addition, the results of this study could inform the design of more rigorous studies, such as impact evaluations, of such incentive schemes.
|REL 2017196||Stated Briefly: An examination of the movement of educators within Minnesota
The Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Midwest conducted a study on the mobility of public school teachers and principals (including assistant principals) within Minnesota and presents average one-year and five-year mobility rates between 2006/07 and 2010/11. The study used the staffing data for the 2006/07 through 2011/12 school years and data on school-level performance and demographics for the same school years. REL Midwest analyzed these data to identify mobility rates and mobility patterns over time. The study also examined whether different educator characteristics and the characteristics of the exited schools (that is, the schools educators moved from) were related to the odds that Minnesota educators continuing their employment would change schools rather than stay employed in the same school. The study found that an average of 9.5 percent of teachers changed schools between consecutive years, and 20.8 percent changed schools within a five-year span. Teachers’ years of experience, licensure area, schools’ academic performance, percentage of students in the schools who were economically disadvantaged, school setting, size, and region in the state were related to the one-year and five-year mobility rates for teachers. One- and five-year mobility rates for principals averaged 10.5 and 29.3 percent, respectively. Principal one- and five-year mobility rates were related to principals’ years of experience, percentage of students in the school who were academically proficient, and percentage of students who were economically disadvantaged.
|REL 2017195||Stated Briefly: An examination of the movement of educators within Wisconsin
The Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Midwest conducted a study on the mobility of public school teachers and principals (including assistant principals) within Wisconsin and presents average one-year and five-year mobility rates between 2006/07 and 2010/11. The study used the staffing data for the 2006/07 through 2011/12 school years and data on school-level performance and demographics for the same school years. REL Midwest analyzed these data to identify mobility rates and mobility patterns over time. The study also examined whether different educator characteristics and the characteristics of the exited schools (that is, the schools educators moved from) were related to the odds that Wisconsin educators continuing their employment would change schools rather than stay employed in the same school. The study found that an average of 8 percent of teachers changed schools between consecutive years, and 19.4 percent changed schools within a five-year span. Teachers’ years of experience, licensure area, schools’ academic performance, percentage of students in the schools who were economically disadvantaged, school setting, size, and region in the state were related to the one-year and five-year mobility rates for teachers. One- and five-year mobility rates for principals averaged 11.9 and 30 percent, respectively. Principal one- and five-year mobility rates were related to principals’ years of experience, percentage of students in the school who were academically proficient, and whether the school was located in an urban setting.
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