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 Pub Number  Title  Date
REL 2021113 Using Enhanced Coaching of Teachers to Improve Reading Achievement in Grades PreK–2 in Chicago Public Schools
Chicago Public Schools is working to improve early literacy outcomes through a multiyear professional development initiative for preK–2 teachers. The P–2 Balanced Literacy Initiative aims to improve literacy instruction by training teachers to implement effective early literacy instruction balancing systematic foundational skills instruction with reading and writing instruction involving rich, complex texts. The initiative began in 2016/17 and served 23 percent of all district elementary schools by 2018/19. The district designated 26 of the 115 elementary schools implementing the initiative in 2018/19 to receive enhanced supports, including intensive, site-based coaching, to support students’ independent reading. This study compared the reading achievement of students who attended schools that received the enhanced supports (priority schools) with the reading achievement of students who attended similar schools that received only the initiative’s standard supports (nonpriority schools). It also examined differences between priority and nonpriority schools in teachers’ and administrators’ participation in professional development sessions and looked at the successes and challenges of implementation. The study found that one year after implementation of the initiative, attending a priority school did not lead to higher end-of-year reading achievement than attending a nonpriority school after other factors were adjusted for. Teachers and administrators in priority schools were more likely than those in nonpriority schools to participate in the initiative’s core professional development sessions. Interviews with select district, network, and school leaders; instructional support coaches; and teachers suggest that several aspects of the initiative’s professional development were valuable, most notably the opportunities for teachers to deepen their understanding of the initiative’s professional development, receive feedback through observation and school-based coaching, and learn from one another. But instructional support coaches’ limited capacity, due to competing responsibilities, was a challenge. District leaders might consider increasing the number of coaches available and limiting their competing priorities so they can focus on the initiative.
WWC IRL679 Intervention Report: Leveled Literacy Intervention
Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) is a short-term, supplementary, small-group literacy intervention designed to help struggling readers achieve grade-level competency. The intervention provides explicit instruction in phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, reading comprehension, oral language skills, and writing. LLI helps teachers match students with texts of progressing difficulty and deliver systematic lessons targeted to a student’s reading ability.
REL 20104035 Impact of the Thinking Reader Software Program on Grade 6 Reading Vocabulary, Comprehension, Strategies, and Motivation: Final Report
Improving adolescent literacy is a critical step toward improving adolescent academic achievement (Kamil , Borman, Dole, Kral, Salinger, & Torgesen, 2008). "Adolescent literacy" commonly refers to the skills that students in Grades 4–12 need in order to successfully learn by reading, as opposed to learning how to read, which is emphasized in earlier grades (Kamil, 2003; Kamil et al., 2008; National Governors Association, 2005). Recent policy reports emphasize the need to build students' reading vocabulary and comprehension skills to meet the increased literacy demands that begin in Grade 4 (Carnegie Council on Advancing Adolescent Literacy, 2010; Meltzer, Smith, & Clark, 2001). Experts who drafted the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts have emphasized that students must show a steadily increasing ability to discern more from text to become successful readers (National Governors Association & Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010). The current study evaluates an intervention (Thinking Reader®) designed to improve middle school students’ reading vocabulary and comprehension (Tom Snyder Productions, 2006a). It responds to an interest expressed by stakeholders to the Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands in improving literacy outcomes for students beyond elementary school.
REL 20114001 The Impact of Collaborative Strategic Reading on the Reading Comprehension of Grade 5 Students in Linguistically Diverse Schools
Recent findings from an expert panel of reading researchers noted that approximately 8 million adolescents struggle with literacy in middle and high school (Biancarosa and Snow 2006); the “most common problem is that they are not able to comprehend what they read” (p. 3). Before the 1980s, teachers rarely taught reading comprehension (Carlisle and Rice 2002; Durkin 1978). However, over the last 20 years, a large body of research emerged on methods for explicitly teaching reading comprehension to students in the upper elementary grades (Carlisle and Rice 2002). The goal is to teach students to learn from text—to discern which information is critical, integrate such information with what is already known, and draw valid inferences.
NCEE 20114004 Impact of a Reading Intervention for Low-Literate Adult ESL Learners
The restricted-use file for this study contains background information and test score data for adult ESL learners who participated in the impact study during the Fall 2008 or Spring 2009 semester. Data on student attendance and teacher background characteristics are also included, as are data from classroom observations conducted in treatment and control classrooms.
NCEE 20114003 The Impact of a Reading Intervention for Low-Literate Adult ESL Learners
Adult ESL programs are designed to assist students in their efforts to acquire literacy and language skills by providing instruction through local education agencies, community colleges, and community-based organizations. The content of instruction within ESL classes varies widely and there is little rigorous research that identifies effective instruction.

The report, The Impact of a Reading Intervention for Low-Literate Adult ESL Learners, uses data collected from 1,137 adult ESL learners in two cohorts across ten sites in four states. Adult ESL teachers and learners were assigned by lottery to either classrooms using the basal reader Sam and Pat, Volume I , or classrooms using the site’s usual curriculum.

Because learners often do not consistently attend adult ESL programs over an extended period of time, English language and reading outcomes were assessed at the beginning and end of one semester for both cohorts of students. Classroom instruction was measured via classroom observations conducted one time in each classroom.
REL 2011094 How Prepared are Students for College-Level Reading? Applying a Lexile-Based Approach
This study develops and applies a new methodology to determine the proportion of grade 11 students whose scores on a Texas English language arts and reading assessment indicate their readiness to read and comprehend textbooks used in entry-level English courses in the University of Texas system.
REL 20104014 The Effectiveness of a Program to Accelerate Vocabulary Development in Kindergarten
The study, The Effectiveness of a Program to Accelerate Vocabulary Development in Kindergarten, found that the 24-week K-PAVE program had a significant positive impact on students' vocabulary development and academic knowledge and on the vocabulary and comprehension support that teachers provided during book read-alouds and other instructional time.

K-PAVE is designed to build children's vocabulary and comprehension skills, oral language skills, and enhance teacher-child relationships. K-PAVE is one of only a few kindergarten-age-appropriate vocabulary interventions and the only intervention with teacher training materials. An existing preschool version of K-PAVE had already demonstrated some evidence of positive effects from an impact study.

The K-PAVE intervention group included 64 schools, 128 kindergarten classrooms and teachers, and 1,296 kindergarten students (596 treatment and 700 control students).
WWC 20104038 Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade
The purpose of the Practice Guide "Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade" is to help teachers, reading coaches, principals, and other educators successfully improve reading comprehension for young readers. This guide focuses on reading comprehension abilities that may be taught specifically to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. Specifically, it focuses on three areas that current research on reading indicates are critical to building a young student’s capacity to comprehend what he or she reads: knowledge and abilities required specifically to comprehend text, thinking and reasoning skills, and motivation to understand and work toward academic goals. This guide includes five recommendations that the panel believes are a priority to implement: (1) Teach students how to use reading comprehension strategies; (2) Teach students to identify and use the text's organizational structure to comprehend, learn, and remember content; (3) Guide students through focused, high-quality discussion on the meaning of text; (4) Select texts purposefully to support comprehension development; and (5) Establish an engaging and motivating context in which to teach reading comprehension. Each recommendation includes a summary of supporting research, implementation strategies, and potential roadblocks and solutions.
WWC IRALRP10 Reading Plus
Reading Plus is a web-based reading intervention that uses technology to provide individualized scaffolded silent reading practice for students in grade 3 and higher. Based on its review of the research, the WWC found Reading Plus to have potentially positive effects on comprehension for adolescent learners.
The second intervention report from the WWC reviews the research on READ 180, a reading program designed for students in grades 3-12 whose reading achievement is below the proficient level. READ 180 aims to address gaps in students' skills through the use of computer software, literature, and direct instruction in reading skills. The WWC identified 56 studies investigating the effects of READ 180 on students with learning disabilities.
WWC IRELLAR09 Intervention: Accelerated Reader
Identifying the best ways to educate students who have a limited range of speaking, reading, writing, and listening skills in English is a subject widely debated among educators and school leaders. The latest report from the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) looks at the effectiveness of "Accelerated Reader" on improving the English language literacy and academic achievement of elementary and middle school students who are English language learners.

The WWC examined the research on Accelerated Reader and identified 13 studies that were published or released between 1983 and 2008 that looked at the effectiveness of this curriculum on English language learners' reading and math skills. None of these studies meet WWC evidence standards. Therefore, conclusions may not be drawn based on research about the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of Accelerated Reader on English Language Learners.
READ 180 is a reading program designed for students in elementary through high school whose reading achievement is below the proficient level. The goal of READ 180 is to address gaps in students’ skills through the use of a computer program, literature, and direct instruction in reading skills. The software component of the program aims to track and adapt to each student’s progress. In addition to the computer program, the READ 180 program includes workbooks designed to address reading comprehension skills, paperback books for independent reading, and audiobooks with corresponding CDs for modeled reading.
NCES 2009013 Teacher Strategies to Help Fourth-Graders Having Difficulty in Reading: An International Perspective
The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) assesses the reading achievement of fourth-graders and collects data on their teachers’ reading instruction practices and strategies. Presenting data from the United States and the 44 other jurisdictions that participated in PIRLS 2006, this Statistics in Brief describes international patterns in the strategies reported by teachers to help fourth-graders falling behind in reading. These strategies include: (a) waiting to see if performance improves with maturation, (b) spending more time working on reading individually with that student, (c) having other students work on reading with the student having difficulty, (d) having the student work in the regular classroom with a teacher-aide, (e) having the student work in the regular classroom with a reading specialist, (f) having the student work in a remedial reading classroom with a reading specialist, (g) assigning homework to help the student catch up, (h) and asking the parents to help the student with reading. Asking the parents to help the student was among the most commonly cited strategies in 44 of the 45 jurisdictions. Working with a reading specialist in a regular classroom was among the least commonly cited strategies in 40 jurisdictions.
WWC IRBRSF09 Intervention: Success for All
Success for All (SFA)® is a whole-school reform model that includes a reading, writing, and oral language development program for students in prekindergarten through eighth grade. Classroom reading instruction is delivered in daily 90-minute blocks to students grouped by reading ability. Immediate intervention with tutors who are certified teachers is given each day to those students who are having difficulty reading at the same level as their classmates.

This intervention report focuses on the reading component of SFA®, which is often implemented in the context of the SFA® whole-school reform program. Although the whole-school reform program has key components that are implemented in each school, school sites may vary considerably in the number of personnel used to implement SFA®, particularly tutors and family support staff. The reading curricula are essentially the same at all schools, with each school receiving the same training, coaching support, and materials. Ratings presented in this report are not disaggregated by the variations in implementation of whole-school reforms.
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