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 Pub Number  Title  Date
REL 2021077 Advanced Placement Participation, Staffing, and Staff Training in the District of Columbia Public Schools
To expand participation in Advanced Placement (AP) courses, several District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) high schools have enacted a policy mandating that all students enroll in one or more AP courses. To promote quality instruction in AP courses, DCPS recommends regular teacher participation in the Advanced Placement Summer Institute (APSI) and is considering recommending that teachers' college major be factored into teacher assignments to AP courses. To better understand this policy and these recommendations, this study examined students' AP exam taking and passing rates in schools that mandate AP course enrollment and in schools that do not, teacher participation in the APSI, and the alignment of AP teachers' college major with the AP course they teach. Three of the four high schools that adopted a mandate on AP course enrollment during the study period had higher AP exam taking and passing rates after their mandate went into place. In three of the five schools that adopted a mandate before or during the study period, the passing rate (grade 10–12 students in the school who passed at least one AP exam as a percentage of all grade 10–12 students in the school) was below 20 percent in every year of the study period, and in a fourth it was below 50 percent in every year. Fewer than one-fifth of AP teachers participated in the APSI at least once every three years. Participation rates were higher in schools offering more AP courses, in schools with lower percentages of racial/ethnic minority students, among teachers whose college major aligned with the AP course they taught, and among more experienced teachers. Among AP teachers with a college major on record, about half had a college major aligned with each specific AP course they taught, and 70 percent had a college major aligned with the broad subject area of each AP course they taught.
REL 2021073 Using High School Data to Predict College Readiness and Early College Success on Guåhan (Guam)
On Guåhan (Guam), the large percentages of students enrolling in non-credit-bearing courses at Kulehon Kumunidåt Guåhan (Guam Community College) and Unibetsedåt Guåhan (University of Guam) have raised concerns about college readiness and early college success. Without adequate research on predictors of college readiness and early success among students on Guåhan, educators and other stakeholders find it difficult to identify and support students at risk of being underprepared for college. This study examined which student characteristics predicted college readiness and early college success among students who graduated from Guåhan high schools and enrolled at Kulehon Kumunidåt Guåhan or Unibetsedåt Guåhan between 2012 and 2015. Students' college readiness and early college success were assessed using three indicators: enrolling in only credit-bearing math and English courses during the first year of college, earning all credits attempted during the first semester of college, and persisting to a second year of college. About 23 percent of students met all three indicators and were thus classified as demonstrating college readiness and early college success. The percentages of students who met each individual indicator varied: 30 percent enrolled in only credit-bearing math and English courses, 43 percent earned all the credits they attempted, and 74 percent persisted to a second year. Various student characteristics predicted meeting all three indicators and each individual indicator. Graduates of John F. Kennedy High School and male students were the most likely to meet all three indicators and were the most likely to enroll in only credit-bearing math and English courses. Completing a high-level math course during high school positively predicted meeting the composite indicator of college readiness and early college success and of enrolling in only credit-bearing math and English courses and earning all credits attempted. A higher cumulative high school grade point average also positively predicted meeting all three indicators and each individual indicator. Kulehon Kumunidåt Guåhan enrollees were more likely than Unibetsedåt Guåhan enrollees to earn all credits attempted during their first semester.
WWC 2021009 Xtreme Reading Intervention Report
The Xtreme Reading curriculum is primarily designed to help students improve their vocabulary, decoding, fluency, and reading comprehension skills. The Xtreme Reading program includes teacher-led whole-group instruction, cooperative group work, paired practice, and independent practice.

Based on the research, the WWC found that Xtreme Reading has no discernible effects on comprehension or general literacy achievement. The WWC based its conclusion on its review of two studies of Xtreme Reading that met WWC group design standards. The two studies included 3,008 students, who were struggling readers based on their low performance on state standardized tests, in 39 high schools in 12 districts across 9 states.
WWC 2021008 Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS®)
PATHS® is delivered through short lessons given two to three times a week over the school year. The program is based on the principle that understanding and regulating emotions are central to effective problem solving. The lessons focus on five components: self-control, emotional literacy, social competence, positive peer relations, and interpersonal problem-solving skills.

Based on the research, the WWC found that PATHS® has no discernible effects on academic achievement, social interactions, observed individual behavior, or emotional status. The WWC based its conclusion on its review of two studies of PATHS® that met WWC group design standards. One study included 1,582 students in 45 schools in 10 districts in the United Kingdom. The second study included 133 students with disabilities in seven elementary schools in three school districts in the state of Washington.
REL 2021083 The Impact of Word Knowledge Instruction on Literacy Outcomes in Grade 5
District leaders in a large urban school district in central Florida wanted to examine the efficacy of a new curriculum designed to enhance the word knowledge of grade 5 students so as to improve reading achievement. The new curriculum, called Word Knowledge Instruction (WKI), consists of 15-minute lessons 4 days a week for 20 weeks. The lessons address state standards and cover 20 prefixes and suffixes. Thirty-nine schools participated in the study, with 92 English language arts (ELA) teachers in high-poverty schools randomly assigned within schools either to use WKI or to continue to use their standard ELA curriculum. Classroom observations revealed that WKI was implemented as intended. WKI had a positive effect, equivalent to an increase of 9 percentile points, on students' ability to correctly extract and spell a base word from a derived word, one of the skills explicitly taught by WKI. WKI had no effect on two other related reading skills that were not directly taught by WKI (students' ability to select a nonword that best fits the grammatical context of a sentence or to use knowledge of word parts to infer meaning of new words) or on students' vocabulary or reading scores. These findings suggest that, although students learned what they were explicitly taught, the transferability to related but not directly taught skills might require more intense or longer duration instruction or additional professional development for teachers.
REL 2021068 Measuring Civic Readiness: A Review of Survey Scales
This resource supports state and local education agencies in identifying, comparing, and contrasting survey scales that measure a variety of civic readiness categories. It describes the format and structure of survey scales, details the civic readiness categories measured by the scales, and summarizes the reliability and validity evidence associated with the scales.
NCES 2021305 Highlights of School-Level Finance Data: Selected Findings from the School-Level Finance Survey (SLFS) School Years 2015-16 (FY 16) and 2016-17 (FY 17)

This statistical analysis report presents key findings and other data highlights from School-Level Finance Survey (SLFS) in school years 2015-16 and 2016-17. The report focuses on (1) the completeness and comparability of SLFS data and (2) how the SLFS can be utilized to evaluate differences in resource allocation (as measured by school-level expenditures) across schools, school districts, and states.

In discussing the findings, the report presents district- and state-aggregated information on school-level expenditure data collected through the SLFS, including:

  • universe coverage and survey item response rates, by state;
  • comparison of SLFS finance data with comparable state-level finance data collected through the National Public Education Financial Survey (NPEFS); and
  • statistics on a wide variety of school-level expenditures (and school-level expenditures per pupil), by school characteristics such as urbanicity and school poverty indicators such as Title I eligibility.

The report also includes an assortment of tables and figures to support its key findings on school-level expenditures collected through the SLFS.

NCES 2021139 Pre-COVID Ability Grouping in U.S. Public Schools
This report examines whether ability grouping was used to organize classes or students in public schools in the United States. It presents information about the prevalence of ability grouping and the characteristics of schools using this method during school year 2017–18.
REL 2021069 Center- and Program-Level Factors Associated with Turnover in the Early Childhood Education Workforce
Staff turnover is a pressing problem in early childhood education. High turnover can create organizational instability and distract from the care and education mandate of early childhood education centers. The Early Childhood Workforce Development Research Alliance of the Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands wants to better understand the factors associated with turnover in the early childhood educator workforce. Using data from the 2012 National Survey of Early Care and Education, this study found that a low average turnover rate across early childhood education centers obscured systematic variation in turnover patterns across types of centers and programs, with high turnover rates in some types. Higher wages were associated with lower turnover rates across centers. Turnover rates were highest among private-pay centers serving children ages 0–5. Nonwage benefits such as health insurance and retirement benefits and paid time off for professional development were generally unrelated to turnover rates. Educators were also clustered into certain center types based on background characteristics; Black educators and educators with lower educational attainment more likely to work in centers with low wages and high turnover.
NCES 2021005 Early Child Care in Single-Parent and Two-Parent Families: 2019
This Data Point compares child care arrangements for children from birth through age 5, in single-parent families and two-parent families. It also examines problems finding childcare.
WWC 2021007 Designing and Delivering Career Pathways at Community Colleges
The What Works ClearinghouseTM (WWC) developed this practice guide in partnership with a panel of experts including researchers who are at the forefront of career and technical education research and practitioners with experience in implementing career pathways interventions. The panel distilled recent, rigorous career pathways intervention research into five practice recommendations for administrators, staff, and faculty at community colleges to help guide the development and delivery of career pathways or career and technical education initiatives.
NCES 2021037 Public high school 4-year adjusted cohort graduation rate (ACGR), by race/ethnicity and selected demographic characteristics for the United States, the 50 states, and the District of Columbia: School Year 2018-19
The Public High School 4-year Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate (ACGR) Table provides data at the national and state level for the fifty states and the District of Columbia to meet reporting requirements of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). The table displays an overall national rate, a state rate, national and state rates for racial/ethnic groups and other demographics. State data are included for the second time for "Homeless enrolled" and "Foster care." The table represents EDFacts File Specification 150 (Data Group 695), School year 2018–19; As of July 24, 2020.
REL 2021074 Steps to Develop a Model to Estimate School- and District-Level Postsecondary Success
This tool is intended to support state and local education agencies in developing a statistical model for estimating student postsecondary success at the school or district level. The tool guides education agency researchers, analysts, and decisionmakers through options to consider when developing their own model. The resulting model generates an indicator of a school's or district's contribution to the postsecondary success of its students after contextual factors are accounted for that might be outside a school's or district's control, such as student demographic characteristics and community characteristics. State and local education agencies could use the information generated by the models they develop to help meet federal and state reporting requirements and to inform their own efforts to improve their students’ postsecondary success.
NCES 2021007 Outside Jobs Among U.S. Public School Teachers
This Data Point examines the supplemental school year income earned at jobs outside the school system by public school teachers in the United States.
NCES 2021150 2019-20 Common Core of Data (CCD) Universe Files
These files are the product of the CCD data collection for the 2019-20 school year. Data are reported at state, district, and school levels and include staff counts by professional category, and student membership disaggregated by grade, race/ethnicity, and sex. Also included are school-level counts of student eligible for free and reduced-price lunches. Along with the data files, four web tables summarizing select CCD data elements including the number and status of schools and local education agencies as well as several CCD indicators, by state are also available to users.
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