Search Results: (1-15 of 33 records)
|NCSER 2020001||An Introduction to Adaptive Interventions and SMART Designs in Education
Educators must often adapt interventions over time because what works for one student may not work for another and what works now for one student may not work in the future for the same student. Adaptive interventions provide education practitioners with a prespecified, systematic, and replicable way of doing this through a sequence of decision rules for whether, how, and when to modify interventions. The sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trial (SMART) is one type of multistage, experimental design that can help education researchers build high-quality adaptive interventions.
Despite the critical role adaptive interventions can play in various domains of education, research about adaptive interventions and the use of SMART designs to develop effective adaptive interventions in education is in its infancy. To help the field move forward in this area, the National Center for Special Education Research (NCSER) and the National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE) commissioned a paper by leading experts in adaptive interventions and SMART designs. This paper aims to provide information on building and evaluating high-quality adaptive interventions and review the components of SMART designs, discuss the key features of the SMART, and introduce common research questions for which SMARTs may be appropriate.
|NCSER 2015002||The Role of Effect Size in Conducting, Interpreting, and Summarizing Single-Case Research
The field of education is increasingly committed to adopting evidence-based practices. Although randomized experimental designs provide strong evidence of the causal effects of interventions, they are not always feasible. For example, depending upon the research question, it may be difficult for researchers to find the number of children necessary for such research designs (e.g., to answer questions about impacts for children with low-incidence disabilities). A type of experimental design that is well suited for such low-incidence populations is the single-case design (SCD). These designs involve observations of a single case (e.g., a child or a classroom) over time in the absence and presence of an experimenter-controlled treatment manipulation to determine whether the outcome is systematically related to the treatment.
Research using SCD is often omitted from reviews of whether evidence-based practices work because there has not been a common metric to gauge effects as there is in group design research. To address this issue, the National Center for Education Research (NCER) and National Center for Special Education Research (NCSER) commissioned a paper by leading experts in methodology and SCD. Authors William Shadish, Larry Hedges, Robert Horner, and Samuel Odom contend that the best way to ensure that SCD research is accessible and informs policy decisions is to use good standardized effect size measures—indices that put results on a scale with the same meaning across studies—for statistical analyses. Included in this paper are the authors' recommendations for how SCD researchers can calculate and report on standardized between-case effect sizes, the way in these effect sizes can be used for various audiences (including policymakers) to interpret findings, and how they can be used across studies to summarize the evidence base for education practices.
|NCSER 20143000||Improving Reading Outcomes for Students with or at Risk for Reading Disabilities: A Synthesis of the Contributions from the Institute of Education Sciences Research Centers
The report describes what has been learned regarding the improvement of reading outcomes for children with or at risk for reading disabilities through research funded by the Institute's National Center for Education Research and National Center for Special Education Research and published in peer-reviewed outlets through December 2011. The synthesis describes contributions to the knowledge base produced by IES-funded research across four focal areas:
|NCSER 20133001||Synthesis of IES Research on Early Intervention and Early Childhood Education
The report describes what has been learned from research grants on early intervention and early childhood education funded by the Institute's National Center for Education Research and National Center for Special Education Research, and published in peer-reviewed outlets through June 2010. This synthesis describes contributions to the knowledge base produced by IES-funded research across four focal areas:
* Early childhood classroom environments and general instructional practices;
* Educational practices designed to impact children's academic and social outcomes;
* Measuring young children's skills and learning; and
* Professional development for early educators.
Research supported by IES has made significant contributions to the evidence base in these areas. The authors also raise important questions for education research in the future, including:
* What are the crucial features of high-quality early childhood education?
* Which instruction is most effective for which children and under what circumstances?
* How do we effectively and efficiently support teachers in improving their instruction?
|NCSER 20133000||Translating the Statistical Representation of the Effects of Education Interventions Into More Readily Interpretable Forms
This new Institute of Education Sciences (IES) report assists with the translation of effect size statistics into more readily interpretable forms for practitioners, policymakers, and researchers. This paper is directed to researchers who conduct and report education intervention studies. Its purpose is to stimulate and guide researchers to go a step beyond reporting the statistics that represent group differences. With what is often very minimal additional effort, those statistical representations can be translated into forms that allow their magnitude and practical significance to be more readily understood by those who are interested in the intervention that was evaluated.
|NCSER 20123000REV||Secondary School Programs and Performance of Students With Disabilities: A Special Topic Report of Findings From the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2)
Secondary School Programs and Performance of Students With Disabilities: A Special Topic Report of Findings From the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 uses data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 dataset to provide a national picture of what courses students with disabilities took in high school, in what settings, and with what success in terms of credits and grades earned.
This report has been revised to reflect the updated NLTS2 dataset released in 2013.
|NCSER 20113005||The Post-High School Outcomes of Young Adults With Disabilities up to 8 Years After High School: Key Findings From the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2)
The Post-High School Outcomes of Young Adults With Disabilities up to 8 Years After High School: Key Findings From the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 is a report that uses data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 dataset to provide a national picture of post-high school outcomes for students with disabilities. The report describes the experiences and outcomes of young adults with disabilities in postsecondary education, employment, independence, and social domains during their first 8 years out of high school.
|NCSER 20113004||The Post-High School Outcomes of Young Adults With Disabilities up to 6 Years After High School: Key Findings From the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2)
The Post-High School Outcomes of Young Adults With Disabilities up to 6 Years After High School: Key Findings From the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 is a report that uses data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 dataset to provide a national picture of post-high school outcomes for students with disabilities. The report includes postsecondary enrollment rates; employment rates; engagement in employment, education, and/or job training activities; household circumstances (e.g., residential independence, parenting status); and social and community involvement.
|NCSER 20113006||A Longitudinal View of the Receptive Vocabulary and Math Achievement of Young Children with Disabilities
This report describes how children who received preschool special education services perform over time on assessments of receptive vocabulary and math skills. It also describes how their receptive vocabulary and math performance vary over time by primary disability category.
|NCSER 20113003||Facts from NLTS2: The Secondary School Experiences and Academic Performance of Students With Hearing Impairments
A gap exists between the academic achievement of youth with hearing impairments and their peers in the general population in reading, mathematics, science, and social studies, according to a new release by The National Center for Special Education Research. Facts from NLTS2: The Secondary School Experiences and Academic Performance of Students With Hearing Impairments uses data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 dataset to provide a national picture of the secondary school experiences and academic achievement of students with hearing impairments who received special education services.
The outcomes cover several key areas, including students' experiences in general education academic courses and non-vocational special education courses, accommodations, supports, services provided to students, and academic achievement. In addition to the findings for the overall group, this fact sheet provides findings by parent-reported levels of hearing impairments.
|NCSER 20113001||A Study of States' Monitoring and Improvement Practices Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
This report provides a description of the nature and scope of states' Part B and Part C monitoring systems. Data on 20 states' monitoring systems in 2004–05 and 2006–07 were collected during two site visits. The report describes states' approaches to monitoring and how states' monitoring systems and processes mapped onto a framework developed for the study.
|NCSER 20113000||Access to Educational and Community Activities for Young Children with Disabilities
This report describes access for young children with disabilities in two specific domains: community activities, including extracurricular activities and family recreation, and kindergarten classroom experiences. It also examines how access and participation in these activities may vary by child, family, and school district characteristics.
|NCSER 20103008||Comparisons Across Time of the Outcomes of Youth With Disabilities up to 4 Years After High School
This report provides a comparison of the post-high school experiences of youth with disabilities in 1990 and in 2005, who had been out of high school up to 4 years. It examines how differences between the two time periods varied across disability categories and demographic groups and, when data are available, how these differences compared with those of youth in the general population.
|NCSER 20103006||Statistical Power Analysis in Education Research
This paper provides a guide to calculating statistical power for the complex multilevel designs that are used in most field studies in education research. For multilevel evaluation studies in the field of education, it is important to account for the impact of clustering on the standard errors of estimates of treatment effects. Using ideas from survey research, the paper explains how sample design induces random variation in the quantities observed in a randomized experiment, and how this random variation relates to statistical power. The manner in which statistical power depends upon the values of intraclass correlations, sample sizes at the various levels, the standardized average treatment effect (effect size), the multiple correlation between covariates and the outcome at different levels, and the heterogeneity of treatment effects across sampling units is illustrated. Both hierarchical and randomized block designs are considered. The paper demonstrates that statistical power in complex designs involving clustered sampling can be computed simply from standard power tables using the idea of operational effect sizes: effect sizes multiplied by a design effect that depends on features of the complex experimental design. These concepts are applied to provide methods for computing power for each of the research designs most frequently used in education research.
|NCSER 20103007||Teacher Perspectives of School-Level Implementation of Alternate Assessment for Students With Significant Cognitive Disabilities
Read about teachers' perspectives on school-level implementation of alternate assessments in a national study released by the National Center for Special Education Research. This study included more than 400 teachers of students with significant cognitive disabilities from three states. The report provides information on the background and experiences of teachers of students with significant cognitive disabilities, the skills and characteristics of the students they teach, and their classroom environments. It also describes their perspectives on how well they understand the alternate assessment system, their expectations and beliefs, the availability and use of instructional resources, and their students' opportunity to learn academic content.
Key findings include: