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What Works Clearinghouse


Summarize and compare the evidence of the effectiveness of interventions that address your school or district’s needs.

Results. 56 Interventions found

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InterventionTopicImprovement IndexEffectiveness RatingExtent Of Evidence
Early Intervention in Reading (EIR)® Literacy (Beginning Reading)
36
Potentially positive effects Small
Stepping Stones to Literacy Literacy (Beginning Reading)
30
Positive effects Small
Ladders to Literacy Literacy (Beginning Reading)
25
Potentially positive effects Medium to Large
Earobics® Literacy (Beginning Reading)
25
Positive effects Small
DaisyQuest Literacy (Beginning Reading)
23
Positive effects Small
Reading Recovery® Literacy (Beginning Reading)
21
Potentially positive effects Small
Sound Partners Literacy (Beginning Reading)
21
Positive effects Medium to Large
SpellRead™ Literacy (Adolescent)
21
Potentially positive effects Small
Waterford Early Reading Program Literacy (Beginning Reading)
19
Potentially positive effects Small
SpellRead™ Literacy (Beginning Reading)
18
Positive effects Small
Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) Literacy (Beginning Reading)
17
Potentially positive effects Small
Start Making a Reader Today® (SMART®) Literacy (Beginning Reading)
16
Potentially positive effects Small
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies Literacy (Beginning Reading)
14
Potentially positive effects Medium to Large
Success for All® Literacy (Beginning Reading)
13
Positive effects Medium to Large
Wilson Reading System® Literacy (Beginning Reading)
13
Potentially positive effects Small
Lexia Reading Literacy (Beginning Reading)
11
Potentially positive effects Small
Voyager Universal Literacy System® Literacy (Beginning Reading)
11
Potentially positive effects Medium to Large
Corrective Reading Literacy (Beginning Reading)
9
Potentially positive effects Small
Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) Children and Youth with Disabilities (Students with Learning Disabilities)
9
Potentially positive effects Small
Read, Write & Type!™ Literacy (Beginning Reading)
8
Potentially positive effects Small
Fast ForWord® Literacy (Beginning Reading)
6
Positive effects Medium to Large

Early reading/writing

General literacy achievement

InterventionTopicImprovement IndexEffectiveness RatingExtent Of Evidence
Read Naturally® Literacy (Beginning Reading)
10
Potentially positive effects Small

Print knowledge

Reading achievement

InterventionTopicImprovement IndexEffectiveness RatingExtent Of Evidence
Instructional Conversations and Literature Logs English Language Learners
29
Potentially positive effects Small
Reading Mastery English Language Learners
28
Potentially positive effects Small
Reading Recovery® Literacy (Beginning Reading)
27
Positive effects Small
Bilingual Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (BCIRC) English Language Learners
23
Potentially positive effects Small
Enhanced Proactive Reading English Language Learners
19
Potentially positive effects Small
Vocabulary Improvement Program for English Language Learners and Their Classmates (VIP) English Language Learners
19
Potentially positive effects Small
Accelerated Reader™ Literacy (Beginning Reading)
16
Potentially positive effects Small
ClassWide Peer Tutoring Literacy (Beginning Reading)
14
Potentially positive effects Small
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies English Language Learners
12
Potentially positive effects Small
Little Books Literacy (Beginning Reading)
12
Potentially positive effects Small
Read 180® Literacy (Adolescent)
12
Potentially positive effects Medium to Large
SuccessMaker® Literacy (Adolescent)
11
Potentially positive effects Small
Success for All® Literacy (Beginning Reading)
10
Potentially positive effects Medium to Large
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition® (CIRC®) Literacy (Adolescent)
2
Potentially positive effects Medium to Large

Reading comprehension

InterventionTopicImprovement IndexEffectiveness RatingExtent Of Evidence
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies Children and Youth with Disabilities (Students with Learning Disabilities)
26
Potentially positive effects Small
Sound Partners Literacy (Beginning Reading)
21
Positive effects Medium to Large
SpellRead™ Literacy (Beginning Reading)
20
Potentially positive effects Small
Project CRISS® Literacy (Adolescent)
20
Potentially positive effects Medium to Large
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies Literacy (Adolescent)
19
Potentially positive effects Small
Early Intervention in Reading (EIR)® Literacy (Beginning Reading)
18
Potentially positive effects Small
Reading Recovery® Literacy (Beginning Reading)
14
Potentially positive effects Small
Start Making a Reader Today® (SMART®) Literacy (Beginning Reading)
14
Potentially positive effects Small
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition® (CIRC®) Literacy (Beginning Reading)
12
Potentially positive effects Medium to Large
Lexia Reading Literacy (Beginning Reading)
11
Potentially positive effects Small
SuccessMaker® Literacy (Adolescent)
11
Potentially positive effects Medium to Large
SpellRead™ Literacy (Adolescent)
11
Potentially positive effects Small
Failure Free Reading Literacy (Beginning Reading)
10
Potentially positive effects Small
Fast ForWord® Literacy (Adolescent)
8
Potentially positive effects Medium to Large
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition® (CIRC®) Literacy (Adolescent)
7
Potentially positive effects Medium to Large
Repeated Reading Children and Youth with Disabilities (Students with Learning Disabilities)
7
Potentially positive effects Small
Student team reading and writing Literacy (Adolescent)
7
Potentially positive effects Medium to Large
Open Court Reading Literacy (Adolescent)
6
Potentially positive effects Small
Read 180® Literacy (Adolescent)
4
Potentially positive effects Medium to Large
Talent Development Middle Grades Program Literacy (Adolescent)
3
Potentially positive effects Small
Reading Apprenticeship® Literacy (Adolescent)
2
Potentially positive effects Small
Reading Plus® Literacy (Adolescent)
2
Potentially positive effects Small

Reading fluency

InterventionTopicImprovement IndexEffectiveness RatingExtent Of Evidence
Reading Recovery® Literacy (Beginning Reading)
46
Potentially positive effects Small
Ladders to Literacy Literacy (Beginning Reading)
26
Potentially positive effects Small
Sound Partners Literacy (Beginning Reading)
19
Positive effects Medium to Large
Reading Mastery Literacy (Adolescent)
19
Potentially positive effects Small
Start Making a Reader Today® (SMART®) Literacy (Beginning Reading)
17
Potentially positive effects Small
Fast ForWord® Literacy (Adolescent)
17
Potentially positive effects Small
Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) Children and Youth with Disabilities (Students with Learning Disabilities)
17
Potentially positive effects Small
Earobics® Literacy (Beginning Reading)
15
Potentially positive effects Small
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies Children and Youth with Disabilities (Students with Learning Disabilities)
14
Potentially positive effects Small
SpellRead™ Literacy (Adolescent)
14
Potentially positive effects Small
Corrective Reading Literacy (Beginning Reading)
11
Potentially positive effects Small
Fluency Formula™ Literacy (Beginning Reading)
10
Potentially positive effects Small
SpellRead™ Literacy (Beginning Reading)
9
Potentially positive effects Small

Writing achievement

Research Details

Intervention

Topic

Evidence

Number of Studies For Intervention

Combined Sample Size

Intervention Characteristics Examined in the Reviewed Research Studies

Report Date

Outcome Domain

Improve-
ment
Index

Effectiveness
Rating

Extent of
Evidence

Total

Meets
Stan-
dards

Meets
with
Reser-
vations

# of Schls

# of Students

Grades

Delivery Method

Program Type

Accelerated Reader™ Beginning Reading Reading achievement 16 Potentially Positive Effects Small 100 1 0 12 426 K, 1, 2, 3 Individual October 2008
Bilingual Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (BCIRC) English Language Learners Reading achievement 23 Potentially Positive Effects Small 1 0 1 7 222 2, 3 Small Group, Whole Class February 2007
ClassWide Peer Tutoring Beginning Reading Reading achievement 14 Potentially Positive Effects Small 12 1 0 6 218 1, 2, 3, 4 Small Group, Whole School July 2007
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition® (CIRC®) Beginning Reading Reading comprehension 12 Potentially Positive Effects Medium to Large 2 1 1 12 712 1, 2, 3, 4 Small Group, Whole Class June 2012
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition® (CIRC®) Adolescent Literacy Reading comprehension 7 Potentially Positive Effects Medium to Large 52 0 2 9 1460 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Whole Class, Whole School August 2010
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition® (CIRC®) Adolescent Literacy Reading achievement 2 Potentially Positive Effects Medium to Large 52 0 2 9 1460 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Whole Class, Whole School August 2010
Corrective Reading Beginning Reading Reading fluency 11 Potentially Positive Effects Small 25 1 0 8 70 3 Small Group July 2007
Corrective Reading Beginning Reading Alphabetics 9 Potentially Positive Effects Small 25 1 0 8 70 3 Small Group July 2007
DaisyQuest Beginning Reading Alphabetics 23 Positive Effects Small 5 4 0 5 223 PK, K, 1 Individual September 2006
Doors to Discovery™ Early Childhood Education Print knowledge 15 Potentially Positive Effects Medium to Large 6 1 1 33 402 PK Whole Class June 2013
Early Intervention in Reading (EIR)® Beginning Reading Alphabetics 36 Potentially Positive Effects Small 7 1 0 2 56 1 Small Group November 2008
Early Intervention in Reading (EIR)® Beginning Reading Reading comprehension 18 Potentially Positive Effects Small 7 1 0 2 57 1 Small Group November 2008
Earobics® Beginning Reading Alphabetics 25 Positive Effects Small 28 2 2 6 246 K, 1, 2, 3 Individual January 2009
Earobics® Beginning Reading Reading fluency 15 Potentially Positive Effects Small 28 2 0 2 111 K, 1, 2, 3 Individual January 2009
Enhanced Proactive Reading English Language Learners Reading achievement 19 Potentially Positive Effects Small 2 1 1 8 132 1 Small Group September 2006
Failure Free Reading Beginning Reading Reading comprehension 10 Potentially Positive Effects Small 59 1 0 8 93 3 Individual, Small Group, Whole Class July 2007
Fast ForWord® Adolescent Literacy Reading fluency 17 Potentially Positive Effects Small 305 0 1 3 24 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Individual August 2010
Fast ForWord® Adolescent Literacy Reading comprehension 8 Potentially Positive Effects Medium to Large 305 0 6 42 1376 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Individual August 2010
Fast ForWord® Beginning Reading Alphabetics 6 Positive Effects Medium to Large 5 5 0 18 784 K, 1, 2, 3 Whole Class March 2013
Fluency Formula™ Beginning Reading Reading fluency 10 Potentially Positive Effects Small 1 1 0 5 128 2 Small Group, Whole Class June 2007
Headsprout® Early Reading Early Childhood Education Print knowledge 22 Potentially Positive Effects Small 1 1 0 2 62 PK Individual October 2009
Instructional Conversations and Literature Logs English Language Learners Reading achievement 29 Potentially Positive Effects Small 2 0 2 11 116 2, 3, 4, 5 Whole Class October 2006
Interactive Shared Book Reading Early Childhood Education Early reading/writing 26 Potentially Positive Effects Small 8 0 1 nr 51 PK Whole Class January 2007
Ladders to Literacy Beginning Reading Reading fluency 26 Potentially Positive Effects Small 1 0 1 1 66 K Whole Class August 2007
Ladders to Literacy Beginning Reading Alphabetics 25 Potentially Positive Effects Medium to Large 6 4 0 14 760 K Whole Class August 2007
Lexia Reading Beginning Reading Alphabetics 11 Potentially Positive Effects Small 2 1 1 3 147 K, 1 Individual June 2009
Lexia Reading Beginning Reading Reading comprehension 11 Potentially Positive Effects Small 11 0 1 2 71 K, 1 Individual June 2009
Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) Beginning Reading Alphabetics 17 Potentially Positive Effects Small 37 1 0 5 146 1 Individual, Small Group December 2008
Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) Students with Learning Disabilities Reading fluency 17 Potentially Positive Effects Small 31 1 0 3 50 4 Individual, Small Group March 2010
Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) Students with Learning Disabilities Alphabetics 9 Potentially Positive Effects Small 31 1 0 3 50 4 Individual, Small Group March 2010
Literacy Express Early Childhood Education Print knowledge 15 Positive Effects Medium to Large 4 3 0 61 999 PK Whole Class July 2010
Little Books Beginning Reading Reading achievement 12 Potentially Positive Effects Small 2 1 0 6 314 K Individual, Whole Class April 2007
Open Court Reading Adolescent Literacy Reading comprehension 6 Potentially Positive Effects Small 1 1 0 5 917 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Whole Class August 2012
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies Students with Learning Disabilities Reading comprehension 26 Potentially Positive Effects Small 2 1 1 12 60 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Small Group June 2012
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies Adolescent Literacy Reading comprehension 19 Potentially Positive Effects Small 1 0 1 12 120 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Small Group January 2012
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies Beginning Reading Alphabetics 14 Potentially Positive Effects Medium to Large 45 2 1 75 3000 K, 1 Small Group May 2012
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies Students with Learning Disabilities Reading fluency 14 Potentially Positive Effects Small 2 1 1 12 60 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Small Group June 2012
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies English Language Learners Reading achievement 12 Potentially Positive Effects Small 4 1 0 nr 99 3, 4, 5, 6 Small Group September 2010
Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training Early Childhood Education Print knowledge 27 Positive Effects Not Rated 3 1 2 4 284 PK Small Group, Whole Class December 2006
Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training Early Childhood Education Early reading/writing 19 Potentially Positive Effects Not Rated 3 1 2 4 284 PK Small Group, Whole Class December 2006
Project CRISS® Adolescent Literacy Reading comprehension 20 Potentially Positive Effects Medium to Large 31 2 0 41 2569 4, 5, 6 Whole Class, Whole School June 2010
Read 180® Adolescent Literacy Reading achievement 12 Potentially Positive Effects Medium to Large 101 0 2 12 4258 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Whole Class October 2009
Read 180® Adolescent Literacy Reading comprehension 4 Potentially Positive Effects Medium to Large 101 0 6 47 6380 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Whole Class October 2009
Read Naturally® Students with Learning Disabilities Writing achievement 13 Potentially Positive Effects Small 43 1 0 1 20 4, 5, 6 Individual July 2010
Read Naturally® Beginning Reading General literacy achievement 10 Potentially Positive Effects Small 2 1 1 4 126 2, 3, 4 Individual, Small Group July 2013
Read, Write & Type!™ Beginning Reading Alphabetics 8 Potentially Positive Effects Small 1 1 0 5 146 1 Individual, Small Group, Whole Class May 2007
Reading Apprenticeship® Adolescent Literacy Reading comprehension 2 Potentially Positive Effects Small 27 1 0 17 2255 9 Whole Class July 2010
Reading Mastery English Language Learners Reading achievement 28 Potentially Positive Effects Small 1 1 0 9 156 K, 1, 2, 3, 4 Small Group September 2006
Reading Mastery Adolescent Literacy Reading fluency 19 Potentially Positive Effects Small 175 1 0 1 57 4, 5 Whole Class August 2010
Reading Plus® Adolescent Literacy Reading comprehension 2 Potentially Positive Effects Small 18 0 1 98 13128 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Individual September 2010
Reading Recovery® Beginning Reading Reading fluency 46 Potentially Positive Effects Small 202 1 0 74 1 Individual July 2013
Reading Recovery® Beginning Reading Reading achievement 27 Positive Effects Small 202 3 0 227 1 Individual July 2013
Reading Recovery® Beginning Reading Alphabetics 21 Potentially Positive Effects Small 202 2 0 148 1 Individual July 2013
Reading Recovery® Beginning Reading Reading comprehension 14 Potentially Positive Effects Small 202 2 0 145 1 Individual July 2013
Repeated Reading Students with Learning Disabilities Reading comprehension 7 Potentially Positive Effects Small 2 2 0 78 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 Individual May 2014
Sound Foundations Early Childhood Education Early reading/writing 20 Potentially Positive Effects Small 4 1 0 4 126 PK Small Group April 2007
Sound Partners Beginning Reading Alphabetics 21 Positive Effects Medium to Large 18 4 3 59 442 K, 1 Individual September 2010
Sound Partners Beginning Reading Reading comprehension 21 Positive Effects Medium to Large 18 2 2 44 309 K, 1 Individual September 2010
Sound Partners Beginning Reading Reading fluency 19 Positive Effects Medium to Large 18 4 3 59 442 K, 1 Individual September 2010
Spelling Mastery Students with Learning Disabilities Writing achievement 28 Potentially Positive Effects Small 7 2 0 4 70 2, 3, 4 Whole Class January 2014
SpellRead™ Adolescent Literacy Alphabetics 21 Potentially Positive Effects Small 2 2 0 9 137 5, 6 Small Group January 2013
SpellRead™ Beginning Reading Reading comprehension 20 Potentially Positive Effects Small 2 2 0 9 139 1, 2, 3 Small Group July 2007
SpellRead™ Beginning Reading Alphabetics 18 Positive Effects Small 2 2 0 9 139 1, 2, 3 Small Group July 2007
SpellRead™ Adolescent Literacy Reading fluency 14 Potentially Positive Effects Small 2 2 0 9 137 5, 6 Small Group January 2013
SpellRead™ Adolescent Literacy Reading comprehension 11 Potentially Positive Effects Small 2 2 0 9 137 5, 6 Small Group January 2013
SpellRead™ Beginning Reading Reading fluency 9 Potentially Positive Effects Small 2 2 0 9 139 1, 2, 3 Small Group July 2007
Start Making a Reader Today® (SMART®) Beginning Reading Reading fluency 17 Potentially Positive Effects Small 1 1 0 6 84 1, 2 Individual June 2007
Start Making a Reader Today® (SMART®) Beginning Reading Alphabetics 16 Potentially Positive Effects Small 1 1 0 6 84 1, 2 Individual June 2007
Start Making a Reader Today® (SMART®) Beginning Reading Reading comprehension 14 Potentially Positive Effects Small 1 1 0 6 84 1, 2 Individual June 2007
Stepping Stones to Literacy Beginning Reading Alphabetics 30 Positive Effects Small 2 2 0 17 120 K Individual June 2007
Student team reading and writing Adolescent Literacy Reading comprehension 7 Potentially Positive Effects Medium to Large 2 0 2 0 5209 6, 7, 8 Small Group November 2011
Success for All® Beginning Reading Alphabetics 13 Positive Effects Medium to Large 110 1 6 73 3909 PK, K, 1, 2, 3 Individual, Whole School August 2009
Success for All® Beginning Reading Reading achievement 10 Potentially Positive Effects Medium to Large 110 0 6 37 2573 PK, K, 1, 2, 3 Individual, Whole School August 2009
SuccessMaker® Adolescent Literacy Reading comprehension 11 Potentially Positive Effects Medium to Large 36 0 3 12 450 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Individual June 2009
SuccessMaker® Adolescent Literacy Reading achievement 11 Potentially Positive Effects Small 36 0 1 3 26 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Individual June 2009
Talent Development Middle Grades Program Adolescent Literacy Reading comprehension 3 Potentially Positive Effects Small 1 0 1 29 7, 8 Whole Class January 2013
Vocabulary Improvement Program for English Language Learners and Their Classmates (VIP) English Language Learners Reading achievement 19 Potentially Positive Effects Small 1 0 1 4 142 5 Whole Class October 2006
Voyager Universal Literacy System® Beginning Reading Alphabetics 11 Potentially Positive Effects Medium to Large 7 0 2 12 611 K Small Group, Whole Class August 2007
Waterford Early Reading Program Beginning Reading Alphabetics 19 Potentially Positive Effects Small 36 0 1 6 76 K Individual July 2007
Wilson Reading System® Beginning Reading Alphabetics 13 Potentially Positive Effects Small 9 1 0 8 71 3 Small Group July 2007

na = not applicable, nr = not reported