ELs are among the fastest-growing population in U.S. schools and comprise 9 percent of all students in grades PreK–12 nationwide (U.S. Department of Education, 2018). Despite the fact that ELs bring many assets with them to school, including their home language, they consistently perform at lower levels than their non-EL peers and have lower high school graduation rates (National Center for Education Statistics, 2014). This review focuses on interventions designed to address this achievement gap by improving the English language and literacy skills and/or content area achievement in mathematics, science, technology, engineering, or social studies of ELs in grades PreK–12.
The following research question guides this review:
- Which interventions improve English language and literacy skills among EL students in grades PreK–12?
- Which interventions improve content area achievement among EL students in grades PreK–12?
- Version: 4.0
- Released: February 2020
- Version: 2.2
- Released: January 2013
- Version: 2.1
- Released: October 2012
- Version: 2.0
- Released: June 2009
- Version: 1.0
- Released: September 2006
What is a Protocol?
The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) uses the Study Review Protocol to review all studies,
including those cited as evidence for U.S. Department of Education grant competitions, studies that were funded by the Department,
and studies identified for systematic reviews of evidence based on a search of the research literature in a particular topic area. As articulated in the WWC Procedures and Standards Handbook, Version 5.0,
when the Study Review Protocol is used to review studies for systematic reviews, an accompanying topic area synthesis protocol will provide criteria for the literature search; guidance on how to identify and prioritize relevant studies for review and inclusion in evidence synthesis products; and guidance on intervention, sample, and outcome eligibility criteria for the synthesis.
The Study Review Protocol is used in combination with the WWC Handbook to guide the review of all studies by the WWC.
In particular, the Study Review Protocol provides additional information on eligible outcome domains for all topic areas reviewed by the WWC
and provides examples of outcome measures that fall within each domain. Starting in January 2021 with the release of the Study Review Protocol, Version 1.0,
the WWC publishes an updated version of the Study Review Protocol to align with an updated version of the WWC Handbook.
The current version of this protocol, the Study Review Protocol, Version 5.0, was published in March 2023 to accompany the WWC Procedures and Standards Handbook, Version 5.0.