WWC review of this study

Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams "CW-FIT" Efficacy Trial Outcomes.

Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard; Dawson-Bannister, Harriett; Heitzman-Powell, Linda; Kottwitz, Esther; Hansen, Blake; Fleming, Kandace. (2015). Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, v17 n3 p134-145. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1064035

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
    , grades

Reviewed: March 2022

Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Study sample characteristics were not reported.

Reviewed: October 2017

At least one finding shows promising evidence of effectiveness
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards without reservations
Student Behavior outcomes—Statistically significant positive effect found for the domain
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
Significant? Improvement

On-Task Behavior (Student)

Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) vs. Business as usual

6 Months

Full sample;
159 teachers





Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

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The study took place in seventeen elementary schools in the midwestern United States. Schools were recruited across four years, but any individual school only participated in the study for one year. These schools were located in and near a metropolitan area. All schools were elementary schools enrolling students in kindergarten through fifth grade.

Study sample

Sample characteristics are not provided on the student analytic sample. However, the authors do provide information about all students at the schools participating in the study. Across the 17 schools, an average of 79% of students were eligible for free or reduced lunch, and an average of 65% identified as a racial minority. Of the 86 teachers in the intervention condition, 78 identified as female and 8 as male. Of the 73 teachers in the comparison condition, 70 identified as female and 3 as male.

Intervention Group

Prior to notification of group assignment, each teacher was asked to choose a time of day where they experience challenging student behaviors. These time periods were used for study implementation, and included math, reading, writing, science, and other. CW-FIT was administered 3-4 times per week over a 6 month period (from mid October to the end of March). During the first 3-5 sessions, three skills were taught to students: gaining teacher attention, following directions, and ignoring inappropriate peer behavior. CW-FIT's group contingency component took the form of a game played in small groups. A timer was set to beep every 2 to 3 minutes. The teacher would then award points to all members of a group if all students in that group were demonstrating appropriate behaviors at the time of the beep. Rewards were distributed at the end of class to all students who met a predefined behavioral goal. Rewards included tangibles (e.g., pencils) and fun activities. Teachers were instructed to reinforce positive behaviors and give "minimal attention" to inappropriate behaviors.

Comparison Group

This study had a business as usual comparison condition. Teachers managed their classrooms as usual.

Support for implementation

CW-FIT teachers were trained by project staff in a 2-hour training workshop. They also received modeling of the procedures for 2-3 sessions, and weekly feedback from building coaches (district employees paid by the university through grant funding) and researchers. The building coaches provided additional modeling and feedback to teachers based on fidelity data, including a verbal report on their use of praise, reprimands, CW-FIT procedures, and class on-task data.


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