WWC review of this study

Using Multi-Component Consultation to Increase the Integrity with Which Teachers Implement Behavioral Classroom Interventions: A Pilot Study

Owens, Julie Sarno; Coles, Erika K.; Evans, Steven W.; Himawan, Lina K.; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Holdaway, Alex S.; Zoromski, Allison K.; Schamberg, Terah; Schulte, Ann (2017). Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED580848

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
    , grades

Reviewed: May 2021

No statistically significant positive
Meets WWC standards with reservations
Educator discipline practice outcomes—Substantively important positive effect found for the domain
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
Significant? Improvement

Global competence in classroom management (modified Student Behavior-Teacher Response Observation Rating System, SBTR)

Daily report cards with multi-component consultation vs. Daily report cards with performance feedback

0 Days

Full sample;
15 teachers





Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • Female: 93%
    Male: 7%
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    Florida, Ohio
  • Race
    Other or unknown
  • Ethnicity
    Not Hispanic or Latino    


This study was conducted in 8 elementary schools (5 in Ohio and 3 in Florida) with teachers of students from kindergarten through grade 5.

Study sample

Fifty-eight teachers participated in the study and 31 teachers were randomly assigned to the intervention group and 27 teachers were randomly assigned to the comparison group. Fifteen teachers remained in the study through the end of the intervention. Participating teachers were mostly female (93%); and non-Hispanic, White (50%), or Hispanic/Latino of any race (45%). Each teacher identified one student in their classroom who met criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or was at risk for ADHD to participate in the study. These students were mostly male (78%) and Hispanic/Latino (53%).

Intervention Group

Teachers participated in an intervention to help them develop skills to manage disruptive behavior in their classrooms. Teachers used daily report cards to record and monitor students' success in meeting specific behavior performance goals, working with a facilitator trained in the intervention to identify the specific performance goals for a disruptive student in each classroom. Facilitators coached teachers in biweekly sessions to help them address students’ problematic behaviors using motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy informed approaches. These approaches focused on the beliefs of individual teachers and attempted to elicit a teachers’ desire to change their approach to students’ disruptive behavior to be more effective. During biweekly feedback sessions, facilitators coached teachers on strategies for problem solving to address barriers to student learning, reviewed the target student’s progress on the daily report card, and provided performance feedback to teachers using the motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy informed approaches. Teachers received 6 biweekly feedback sessions for 38 minutes each, on average.

Comparison Group

Teachers used the same daily report cards and while the structure of the coaching was similar, the feedback sessions did not include the motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy informed approaches used in the intervention condition. During biweekly feedback sessions, facilitators coached teachers on problem solving for disruptive behavior and provided brief performance feedback focused on reviewing the teacher’s use of classroom management strategies. Teachers received 6 biweekly feedback sessions for 23 minutes each, on average.

Support for implementation

Intervention and comparison group teachers participated in a 3-hour workshop conducted by study investigators on best practices in classroom management and the use of daily report cards for students with behavioral issues. In both the intervention and comparison group, a facilitator interviewed teachers about their classroom management style and assisted teachers in identifying behavioral performance goals for the daily report cards. Facilitators received a 3-day training and practice sessions. Facilitators received performance feedback in weekly sessions with their supervisor based on videotaped sessions of their biweekly feedback sessions with teachers.


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