Reference Resources iconReview Protocols

ELs are among the fastest-growing population in U.S. schools and comprise 9 percent of all students in grades PreK–12 nationwide (U.S. Department of Education, 2018). Despite the fact that ELs bring many assets with them to school, including their home language, they consistently perform at lower levels than their non-EL peers and have lower high school graduation rates (National Center for Education Statistics, 2014). This review focuses on interventions designed to address this achievement gap by improving the English language and literacy skills and/or content area achievement in mathematics, science, technology, engineering, or social studies of ELs in grades PreK–12.

The following research question guides this review:

  • Which interventions improve English language and literacy skills among EL students in grades PreK–12?

  • Which interventions improve content area achievement among EL students in grades PreK–12?



Protocol Details

  • Version: 4.0
  • Released: February 2020
  • Version: 2.2
  • Released: January 2013
  • Version: 2.1
  • Released: October 2012
  • Version: 2.0
  • Released: June 2009
  • Version: 1.0
  • Released: September 2006

What is a Protocol?

A review protocol defines the scope of a systematic review. Developed with substantive experts, the protocol defines the parameters for the review, including the research, populations, settings, and outcomes. The protocol also specifies details of the literature search and any topic-specific applications of the design standards.

Protocol versions reflect the version of WWC standards in effect when the protocol was released. Protocol versions that predate the current version of the WWC standards handbook can be used to identify acceptable outcome domains for review within a given topic. The current WWC standards are used to guide the review of studies with acceptable outcomes.

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