WWC review of this study

Achievement placement and services: Middle school benefits of ClassWide Peer Tutoring used at the elementary school.

Greenwood, C. R., Terry, B., Utley, C. A., Montagna, D., & Walker, D. (1993). School Psychology Review, 22 (3), 497–516. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ486049

  • Randomized controlled trial
    , grades

Reviewed: July 2007

At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards without reservations
Reading achievement outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
Significant? Improvement

Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS): U Reading subtest

ClassWide Peer Tutoring vs. Business as usual


Grade 6;
218 students





Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • Urban
    • B
    • A
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • I
    • H
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • P
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • V
    • U
    • T
    • W
    • X
    • Z
    • Y
    • a
    • h
    • i
    • b
    • d
    • e
    • f
    • c
    • g
    • j
    • k
    • l
    • m
    • n
    • o
    • p
    • q
    • r
    • s
    • t
    • u
    • x
    • w
    • y



Six Chapter I elementary schools in one school district in Kansas City, Kansas.

Study sample

Two-hundred and ninety-three first-grade students (170 students in intervention, 123 students in comparison) participated in this longitudinal study that followed students during program implementation from first grade to fourth grade and followed up two years later in sixth grade. The study assigned schools to conditions—four schools were randomly assigned to the intervention and two schools to the comparison. About 24% of the students in the intervention group and 27% of the students in the comparison group were lost to analysis at follow-up at sixth grade. The study demonstrated equivalence of baseline scores of students in the intervention and comparison samples included in the analysis.

Intervention Group

Most teachers were involved in the study for one year. Two teachers refused to participate in the CWPT program, but agreed for the assessments to take place. Teachers received either three hours of paid university credit or a monetary compensation for their participation in the study.

Comparison Group

Comparison group students received their regular reading instruction program and Title I services. CWPT training or implementation was not conducted in the comparison schools. Teachers received either three hours of paid university credit or a monetary compensation for their participation in the study.

Outcome descriptions

The primary outcome measure at grade 6 was the reading subtest of the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills–Form U (CTBS–U), 3rd edition. The reading subtest of the Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT) was administered at grade 4, but is not reviewed in this intervention report because of severe attrition of students. Language subtests for both measures were also administered but are not included in this review because they do not reflect outcome domains that are the focus of this Beginning Reading WWC review (see Appendix A2 for more detailed descriptions of the outcome measure reviewed for rating purposes).

Support for implementation

Most of the participating classrooms were taught by a different teacher each year. The participating teachers received CWPT training each year. Teachers first read the program manual and then discussed with their consultants the changes to be made in their classroom practices. After the initial planning and preparation, consultants helped teachers implement the intervention in their classrooms. Teachers were considered trained when they received a score of 85% or above on the consultants’ observation checklists.

In the case of multiple manuscripts that report on one study, the WWC selects one manuscript as the primary citation and lists other manuscripts that describe the study as additional sources.

  • Greenwood, C. R., Delquadri, J., & Hall, R. V. (1989). Longitudinal effects of classwide peer tutoring. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(3), 371-383.

  • Greenwood, C. R. (1991). Longitudinal analysis of time, engagement and achievement in at-risk versus non-risk students. Exceptional Children, 57 (6), 521–535.


Your export should download shortly as a zip archive.

This download will include data files for study and findings review data and a data dictionary.

Connect With the WWC

back to top