WWC review of this study

Promoting broad and stable improvements in low-income children’s numerical knowledge through playing number board games. [Number board games vs. color board games]

Ramani, G. B., & Siegler, R. S. (2008). Child Development, 79(2), 375–394. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ789398

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
     examining 
    124
     Students
    , grade
    PK

Reviewed: January 2022

At least one finding shows promising evidence of effectiveness
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards without reservations
Mathematics outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Count-10

Number board games vs. Intervention

0 Days

Full sample: Number board game vs. color board game;
124 students

94.00

71.00

Yes

 
 
37
 
More Outcomes

Number line Estimation-Percent Absolute Error

Number board games vs. Intervention

0 Days

Full sample: Number board game vs. color board game;
124 students

0.39

0.30

Yes

 
 
34
 

Numerical Magnitude Comparison

Number board games vs. Intervention

0 Days

Full sample: Number board game vs. color board game;
124 students

85.00

70.00

Yes

 
 
33
 

Rote Counting

Number board games vs. Intervention

0 Days

Full sample: Number board game vs. color board game;
124 students

9.90

8.40

Yes

 
 
25
 

Numerical Identification

Number board games vs. Intervention

0 Days

Full sample: Number board game vs. color board game;
124 students

8.20

6.30

Yes

 
 
25
 
Show Supplemental Findings

Count-10

Number board games vs. Intervention

9 Weeks

Full sample: Number board game vs. color board game;
124 students

97.00

77.00

Yes

 
 
42

Numerical Identification

Number board games vs. Intervention

9 Weeks

Full sample: Number board game vs. color board game;
124 students

8.70

6.60

Yes

 
 
28

Numerical Magnitude Comparison

Number board games vs. Intervention

9 Weeks

Full sample: Number board game vs. color board game;
124 students

83.00

70.00

Yes

 
 
28

Rote Counting

Number board games vs. Intervention

9 Weeks

Full sample: Number board game vs. color board game;
124 students

9.90

8.60

Yes

 
 
23

Number line Estimation-Percent Absolute Error

Number board games vs. Intervention

9 Weeks

Full sample: Number board game vs. color board game;
124 students

0.34

0.29

Yes

 
 
19


Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • Female: 54%
    Male: 46%

  • Urban
    • B
    • A
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    • D
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    • y

    Pennsylvania
  • Race
    Black
    52%
    Other or unknown
    6%
    White
    41%

Setting

The study sample includes children from 10 Head Start centers in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania.

Study sample

Of the 124 students in the analytic sample, approximately 54% were female, 52% were African American, 41% were White, and 6% were Asian, Hispanic, biracial or unknown. Ages ranged from 4.1 years to 5.4 years (M = 4.75 years, SD = 0.44 years). Information on financial position was omitted except to indicate that all participants met the income requirements for Head Start established by the Federal government for 2006 (e.g., for a family of three, annual income below $16,600).

Intervention Group

The intervention consisted of children playing a number board game with the experimenters that involved spinning a spinner and moving spaces according to whether the player correctly identified the number that they spun. Children met with experimenters individually for four 15-20 minute sessions over a 2 week period. The immediate post-test was given at the end of the 2 week intervention, and a follow up test was given 9 weeks after the intervention was completed.

Comparison Group

The comparison condition was identical to the intervention condition except that children played a color board game rather than a number board game.

Support for implementation

No specific supports for implementation of the intervention were discussed.

Reviewed: November 2013

Meets WWC standards without reservations


Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • Female: 54%
    Male: 46%

  • Urban
  • Race
    Black
    52%
    Other or unknown
    6%
    White
    42%

Reviewed: September 2010

Meets WWC standards without reservations


Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • Female: 54%
    Male: 46%

  • Urban
  • Race
    Black
    52%
    Other or unknown
    6%
    White
    42%

Reviewed: August 2008

At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards without reservations
General Mathematics Achievement outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Number Line Estimation: Linearity

Playing Number Board Games vs. Other board game

Posttest

Overall;
124 students

0.46

0.16

Yes

 
 
36
More Outcomes

Number Line Estimation: Slope

Playing Number Board Games vs. Other board game

Posttest

Overall;
124 students

0.65

0.17

Yes

 
 
35

Magnitude Comparison

Playing Number Board Games vs. Other board game

Posttest

Overall;
124 students

0.85

0.70

Yes

 
 
34

Numerical Identification

Playing Number Board Games vs. Other board game

9 week followup

Overall;
124 students

8.70

6.60

Yes

 
 
29

Magnitude Comparison

Playing Number Board Games vs. Other board game

9 week followup

Overall;
124 students

0.83

0.70

Yes

 
 
28

Counting

Playing Number Board Games vs. Other board game

Posttest

Overall;
124 students

9.90

8.40

Yes

 
 
27

Numerical Identification

Playing Number Board Games vs. Other board game

Posttest

Overall;
124 students

8.20

6.30

Yes

 
 
25

Counting

Playing Number Board Games vs. Other board game

9 week followup

Overall;
124 students

9.90

8.60

Yes

 
 
25

Number Line Estimation: Slope

Playing Number Board Games vs. Other board game

9 week followup

Overall;
124 students

0.48

0.19

Yes

 
 
22

Number Line Estimation: Linearity

Playing Number Board Games vs. Other board game

9 week followup

Overall;
124 students

0.34

0.18

Yes

 
 
21


Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • Female: 54%
    Male: 46%

  • Urban
  • Race
    Black
    53%
    White
    41%
 

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