WWC review of this study

Not too late: Improving academic outcomes for disadvantaged youth (Working paper WP-15-01)

Cook, P. J., Dodge, K., Farkas, G., Fryer, R. G., Jr., Guryan, J., Ludwig, J., ... Steinberg, L. (2015). Evanston, IL: Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University. Retrieved from http://www.ipr.northwestern.edu/.

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
    , grades

Reviewed: December 2016

At least one finding shows strong evidence of effectiveness
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards without reservations
General Mathematics Achievement outcomes—Statistically significant positive effect found for the domain
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
Significant? Improvement

ACT EXPLORE/PLAN test scores

Match Education's tutoring model vs. Business as usual

Full sample;
1,919 students





Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • Male: 100%

  • Urban
    • B
    • A
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • I
    • H
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • P
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • V
    • U
    • T
    • W
    • X
    • Z
    • Y
    • a
    • h
    • i
    • b
    • d
    • e
    • f
    • c
    • g
    • j
    • k
    • l
    • m
    • n
    • o
    • p
    • q
    • r
    • s
    • t
    • u
    • x
    • w
    • y



The study took place in twelve Chicago Public Schools during the 2013-2014 academic year. The number of classrooms containing intervention participants was not supplied, but both 9th and 10th grade students were included in the intervention.

Study sample

All participants were male and enrolled in the 9th or 10th grade. Over 90% of study participants were eligible for free to reduced lunch. The year prior to the intervention, the average GPA of the study sample was 2.1.

Intervention Group

Match Education's tutoring model includes individualized small group (two-on-one) math tutoring. Tutoring is provided every school day for one hour. Match tutoring is taken as a credit bearing class replacing either an elective or the second math course in a two-course block. Tutoring sessions lasted 55 minutes each, up to 165 hours per academic year. Tutoring was geared both towards helping students with their math deficiencies in general and helping students understand content they were being taught in class in particular. The intervention was both developed and delivered by Match Education of Boston, and took place over the 2013-14 academic year. Tutors were paid employees.

Comparison Group

Both the intervention and comparison students had access to typically-provided services, such as Title I-funded after-school tutoring. Approximately half of participants in the comparison condition (as well as approximately half of the participants in the intervention condition) also participated in the Becoming A Man (B.A.M) program. This program was not the focus of this report. The goal of B.A.M. is to reduce crime and antisocial behavior through teaching social and cognitive skills.

Support for implementation

Tutors underwent 100 hours of training and received daily feedback and professional development. Each school had a site director responsible for providing guidance to the tutors and handling any behavioral issues. The intervention was delivered by Match Education of Boston.


Your export should download shortly as a zip archive.

This download will include data files for study and findings review data and a data dictionary.

Connect With the WWC

back to top