WWC review of this study

The Effect of e-Book Vocabulary Instruction on Spanish-English Speaking Children

Wood, Carla; Fitton, Lisa; Petscher, Yaacov; Rodriguez, Estrella; Sunderman, Gretchen; Lim, Taehyeong (2018). Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, v61 n8 p1945-1969. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1187764

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
    , grades

Reviewed: November 2018

At least one finding shows promising evidence of effectiveness
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards without reservations
Reading achievement outcomes—Statistically significant positive effect found for the domain
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
Significant? Improvement

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test IV (PPVT-IV)

BLOOM vs. Business as usual

0 Months

Full sample;
258 students





Expressive definitions

BLOOM vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
203 students





Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • Female: 49%
    Male: 51%

  • Rural, Suburban, Urban
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    Florida, Kansas


The study took place in 21 kindergarten and 25 first-grade classrooms across eight public schools located in Florida and Kansas. (p. 5)

Study sample

According to parent reports, 95% of the sample was eligible for free or reduced price lunch. At the end of the school year, 51.2% of the final participant pool was male and 48.8% female. All students spoke Spanish at home. (p. 5)

Intervention Group

Students in the intervention condition participated in supplemental Bridging for Language Outcomes in the Classroom (BLOOM) e-book sessions embedded with explicit vocabulary instruction. In the intervention condition, children listened to the recorded e-books three times a week for 10-20 weeks. The e-book sessions lasted 25 minutes and contained explicit instruction in both Spanish and English on targeted words as the words occurred in the book. This explicit instruction included previewing the target words, expanding and bridging across the two languages, visual representations of the function of the words through video clips, providing game-like word map activities with tiered supports, and a final audio and visual review. (pp. 6-7)

Comparison Group

Students in the comparison condition participated in supplemental Bridging for Language Outcomes in the Classroom (BLOOM) e-book sessions without embedded instruction, directions, or additional language content apart from a recording of the text appearing on the page. Students read the same e-books as students the intervention conditions. They participated in 10-15 minute sessions 3 times a week for 10-20 weeks. (p. 7)

Support for implementation

Depending on the day of the week and availability of classroom-support personnel, teachers, classroom assistants, paraeducators, volunteers, and researchers assisted children with logging into the computers for the e-book sessions (p. 9)


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