WWC review of this study

Individualizing a web-based structure strategy intervention for fifth graders' comprehension of nonfiction

Meyer, B.J.F., Wijekumar, K.K., Lin, Y. (2011). Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(1) 140-168 Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ914858

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
     examining 
    131
     Students
    , grade
    5

Reviewed: August 2020

At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards without reservations
Comprehension outcomes—Indeterminate effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
ESSA
rating

Comparison Text: Signaling Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

Full sample;
131 students

20.57

18.09

No

--
More Outcomes

Gray Silent Reading Test (GSRT)

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

Full sample;
131 students

42.30

39.35

No

--

Comparison Text: Total Recall Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

Full sample;
131 students

38.24

37.20

No

--

Comparison Text: Top-level structure

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

Full sample;
131 students

6.75

6.64

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Total Recall Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

Full sample;
131 students

53.51

53.19

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Top-level structure

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

Full sample;
131 students

5.39

5.35

No

--
Show Supplemental Findings

Problem/Solution Text: Total Recall Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

Low-ability readers ;
43 students

51.60

44.63

Yes

 
 
25

Comparison Text: Signaling Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

High-ability readers;
44 students

23.83

21.55

Yes

 
 
25

Comparison Text: Signaling Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

High-ability readers;
44 students

24.18

21.97

No

--

Gray Silent Reading Test (GSRT)

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

Middle-ability readers;
44 students

46.50

41.05

No

--

Gray Silent Reading Test (GSRT)

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

Low-ability readers ;
43 students

36.49

31.62

No

--

Comparison Text: Signaling Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

Middle-ability readers;
44 students

20.34

18.65

No

--

Comparison Text: Signaling Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

Low-ability readers;
43 students

17.06

14.46

No

--

Comparison Text: Signaling Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

Full sample;
131 students

20.09

18.45

No

--

Comparison Text: Total Recall Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

High-ability readers;
44 students

43.83

38.94

No

--

Comparison Text: Top-level structure

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

Middle-ability readers ;
44 students

7.32

6.84

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Total Recall Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

Middle-ability readers;
44 students

56.13

53.76

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Top-level structure

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

Low-ability readers;
43 students

4.56

4.04

No

--

Comparison Text: Signaling Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

Low-ability readers;
43 students

15.85

14.71

No

--

Comparison Text: Signaling Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

Middle-ability readers;
44 students

19.85

19.05

No

--

Gray Silent Reading Test (GSRT)

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

High-ability readers;
44 students

47.45

46.23

No

--

Comparison Text: Top-level structure

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

High-ability readers ;
44 students

7.68

7.41

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Total Recall Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

Low-ability readers;
43 students

50.83

49.66

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Total Recall Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

Full sample;
131 students

52.28

51.14

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Top-level structure

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

Middle-ability readers;
44 students

6.01

5.75

No

--

Comparison Text: Total Recall Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

High-ability readers;
44 students

45.24

43.68

No

--

Comparison Text: Total Recall Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

Low-ability readers;
43 students

30.79

29.24

No

--

Comparison Text: Top-level structure

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

High-ability readers;
44 students

7.37

7.23

No

--

Comparison Text: Total Recall Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

Middle-ability readers;
44 students

40.06

39.63

No

--

Comparison Text: Total Recall Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

Full sample;
131 students

32.57

32.61

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Total Recall Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

Middle-ability readers;
44 students

54.40

54.34

No

--

Comparison Text: Top-level structure

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

Full sample;
131 students

6.30

6.38

No

--

Comparison Text: Total Recall Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

Middle-ability readers;
44 students

32.04

33.24

No

--

Comparison Text: Top-level structure

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

Middle-ability readers ;
44 students

6.74

6.91

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Top-level structure

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

Low-ability readers;
43 students

3.71

4.00

No

--

Comparison Text: Top-level structure

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

Low-ability readers ;
43 students

4.80

5.17

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Top-level structure

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

High-ability readers;
44 students

6.03

6.41

No

--

Comparison Text: Total Recall Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

Low-ability readers;
43 students

22.58

26.30

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Total Recall Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

High-ability readers;
44 students

54.38

56.53

No

--

Comparison Text: Top-level structure

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

0 Days

Low-ability readers;
43 students

5.19

5.76

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Total Recall Test

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

High-ability readers;
44 students

52.09

55.32

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Top-level structure

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

Middle-ability readers;
44 students

4.90

5.85

No

--

Problem/Solution Text: Top-level structure

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

Full sample;
131 students

4.10

5.31

Yes

-17
 
 

Problem/Solution Text: Top-level structure

Individualized Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (Individualized ITSS) vs. Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy

1 Month

High-ability readers;
44 students

3.85

6.25

Yes

-28
 
 

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • Suburban
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    Pennsylvania

Setting

The study took place in grade 5 classrooms within two elementary schools in a western Pennsylvania suburban school district.

Study sample

Within the two study schools, 80.6% of students were white,11.4% were Black or African American, 1.6% were Asian American, and 6.4% were Native American, Hispanic, or students from other backgrounds; 9.8% of all students received free or reduced-price lunch, and 8.5% of the students were enrolled in part-time special education services. Characteristics of the students in the study sample were not provided.

Intervention Group

The intervention condition was an individualized version of Intelligent Tutoring for the Structure Strategy (ITSS). ITSS is a supplemental web-based program for students in grades K-8. It is designed to develop literacy skills needed to understand factual texts encountered in classrooms and everyday life. The program teaches students how to follow the logical structure of factual text and to use text structure to improve understanding and recall. In particular, ITSS highlights five main text structures that are used to (1) make comparisons; (2) present problems and solutions; (3) link causes and effects; (4) present sequences; and (5) describe things, people, creatures, places, or events. The program helps students classify the structure of a passage by identifying certain key words, such as “solution” and “in contrast,” that clue readers in to the type of arguments the text is making. The individualized version of ITSS provided remediation or enrichment lessons matched to individual needs, based on the student's performance in the system. The intervention was provided for 6 months to students in the intervention group, for 3 times a week for 30 minutes each. The time spent using ITSS replaced regularly scheduled social studies instruction.

Comparison Group

The comparison condition was the standard version of ITSS, which provided all students with the same, fixed sequence of lessons on structure strategy, regardless of their performance. As in the intervention condition, ITSS was provided for 6 months to students in the intervention group, for 3 times a week for 30 minutes each, and the time spent using ITSS replaced regularly scheduled social studies instruction.

Support for implementation

No support for implementation was noted.

 

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