WWC review of this study

Linked Learning San Bernardino (LLSB): Accelerating College and Career Readiness in Low-Performing Schools: An Investing in Innovation (i3) Development Grant Evaluation. Technical Report.

Arshan, N. L., & Bosetti, K. R. (2018). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. https://www.sri.com/publication/linked-learning-san-bernardino-llsb-accelerating-college-and-career-readiness-in-low-performing-schools/.

  • Quasi-Experimental Design
     examining 
    1,385
     Students
    , grades
    10-12

Reviewed: December 2021

At least one finding shows moderate evidence of effectiveness
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards with reservations
College Readiness outcomes—Statistically significant positive effect found for the domain
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Total A-G requirements completed in 10th-12th grade

Linked Learning vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
639 students

9.81

8.25

Yes

 
 
7
 
Show Supplemental Findings

Completed All A-G Requirements

Linked Learning vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
639 students

21.10

16.40

Yes

 
 
7
Progressing in secondary school or adult education outcomes—Statistically significant positive effect found for the domain
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Total Credits Earned (10th-12th Grade)

Linked Learning vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
639 students

176.21

155.01

Yes

 
 
11
 


Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • 19% English language learners

  • Female: 50%
    Male: 50%
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    California
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic    
    88%
    Not Hispanic or Latino    
    12%

Setting

The study took place in two high-poverty, low-achieving high schools in the San Bernardino City Unified School District (SBCUSD) in California: Arroyo Valley High School and San Bernardino High School.

Study sample

In the analytic sample for the confirmatory contrasts (n=639), 19.1% were English Language Learners, 50.2% were female, 87.9% identified as Latina/o. Almost all students received free or reduced-price lunch (96.7%).

Intervention Group

ConnectEd, The California Center for College and Career, supported San Bernardino City Unified School District to develop a system of Linked Learning career-themed academies both by supporting the creation of new pathways and the further development of existing California Partnership Academies. Linked Learning career-themed academies combined college-focused academics, rigorous technical education, work-based learning, and personalized student supports in small cohorts in grades 9–12. To support the development of these academies, ConnectEd provided San Bernardino with a system of supports at various levels within the district and schools including coaching and professional development for the district leadership team, the district Linked Learning Director, school administrators, school-based coaches, and academy teachers. ConnectEd also supported the district to make changes to support the academies, including clear messaging and vision, staffing (e.g., a district Linked Learning coordinator, consistent staffing within academies), and development of school master calendars that support consistent student enrollment in academy classes.

Comparison Group

Students in the comparison condition chose to participate in the traditional academic programs at their school in 2014-15, when they were in 10th grade. Comparison students could choose to transfer into a CPA in 11th or 12th grade.

Support for implementation

The California Center for College and Career Readiness (Connected) partnered with the study schools to develop and implement their CPAs between the 2014-15 and 2016-17 school years. Implementation supports included professional development events (in-person trainings or workshops, online learning opportunities, and individual and group coaching), as well as development of systems and policies (e.g., school choice and transportation policies, leadership capacity) that allow for Linked Learning pathways to be successfully implemented.

 

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