Single Study Review (findings for Schema-based instruction)
Meets WWC standards with reservations
because it is a compromised cluster randomized controlled trial, but it satisfies the baseline equivalence requirement for the individuals in the analytic intervention and comparison groups.
This review may not reflect the full body of research evidence for this intervention.
Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.
Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.
English language learners
Rural, Suburban, Urban
| Other or unknown
The study took place in 58 middle schools across 50 school districts in an upper Midwest state. The majority of school districts were located in a rural (38) setting, while eight school districts were located in a suburban setting and four school districts were located in an urban setting.
A total of 1,854 students in grade 7 mathematics classes were included in the study. The 1,854 students in middle schools were taught by 82 teachers in 58 schools.
Approximately 49 percent of the students were male, 48 percent were female, and 3 percent did not report gender. Approximately 75 percent of the students were White, 8 percent were Black, 6 percent were Asian, and 11 percent did not report a race. Approximately 7 percent of students were Hispanic. In addition, 6 percent of students were English learners, 40 percent were receiving free/reduced price lunch, and 10 percent of students had an unspecified disability.
Students in the intervention group received schema-based instruction (SBI), a mathematical program designed to assist students in their problem-solving reasoning that involves proportional relationships. The program consisted of two units: Ratio/Proportion and Percent. Each unit included ten 50-minute lessons with an additional lesson at the end of the Percent unit to provide additional practice on solving problems related to ratio, proportion, and percent. The SBI instructional approach included four instructional practices: (1) explicit modeling problem solving and metacognitive strategies; (2) activating the mathematical structure of problems; (3) visually mapping information using schematic diagrams; and (4) developing procedural flexibility. SBI was provided during regularly scheduled grade 7 mathematics classes. Instruction was administered to the whole class five days a week for six weeks.
Students in the comparison group received business-as-usual grade 7 mathematics instruction. Topics discussed included the same content taught in the intervention classes but using the district-adopted textbooks. There were 10 different textbooks used across districts, which included instructional components similar to SBI but were not overlapping (i.e., identifying the problem type, visuals, modeling of problem solving and metacognitive strategies, and multiple solution strategies). The authors do not specify the length of instruction for the comparison group.
Support for implementation
One of the authors of the SBI program led a two-day (16 hour) professional development session to teachers assigned to the intervention condition. The training familiarized teachers with the lessons and scope of the program, taught the critical SBI practices, and provided teaching materials and a detailed teacher guide.
In the case of multiple manuscripts that report on one study, the WWC selects one manuscript as the primary citation and lists other manuscripts that describe the study as additional sources.
Jitendra, Asha K.; Harwell, Michael R.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Karl, Stacy R. (2016). A Randomized Trial of the Effects of Schema-Based Instruction on Proportional Problem-Solving for Students with Mathematics Problem-Solving Difficulties.