WWC review of this study

Indiana and Minnesota students who focused on career and technical education in high school: Who are they, and what are their college and employment outcomes? REL 2021-090.

Lindsay, J., Austin, M., Wan, Y., Pan, J., Pardo, M., & Yang, J. (2021). Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED613044

  • Quasi-Experimental Design
     examining 
    306,868
     Students
    , grades
    9-PS

Reviewed: December 2021

At least one finding shows moderate evidence of effectiveness
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards with reservations
College Degree Attainment outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Attained an associate’s degree

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

3 Years

Indiana Three-year sample (2013/14–2015/16 cohorts);
73,626 students

5.30

3.30

Yes

 
 
12
 
More Outcomes

Attained an associate’s degree

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

3 Years

Minnesota Three-year sample (2012/13–2015/16 cohorts) ;
114,126 students

8.20

7.20

Yes

 
 
3
 
Show Supplemental Findings

Attained a certificate

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Minnesota One-year sample (2012/13–2017/18 Cohorts);
171,778 students

3.70

2.00

Yes

 
 
15

Attained a certificate

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Indiana One-year sample (2013/14–2017/18 cohorts);
135,090 students

0.04

0.04

No

--

Attained a bachelor’s degree

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

4 Years

Indiana Four-year sample (2013/14–2014/15 cohorts) ;
44,938 students

11.20

16.20

Yes

-10
 
 

Attained a bachelor’s degree

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

4 Years

Minnesota Four-year sample (2012/13–2014/15 cohorts) ;
85,076 students

15.90

28.10

Yes

-17
 
 
College enrollment outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Enrollment in a two-year college within one year

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Minnesota One-year sample (2012/13–2017/18 Cohorts);
171,778 students

23.20

16.40

Yes

 
 
10
 
More Outcomes

Enrollment in a two-year college within one year

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Indiana One-year sample (2013/14–2017/18 cohorts);
135,090 students

16.10

12.00

Yes

 
 
8
 
Show Supplemental Findings

Enrollment in any type of college within one year

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Indiana One-year sample (2013/14–2017/18 cohorts);
135,090 students

51.80

56.10

Yes

-4
 
 

Enrollment in a four-year college within one year

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Indiana One-year sample (2013/14–2017/18 cohorts);
135,090 students

36.00

44.20

Yes

-8
 
 

Enrollment in any type of college within one year

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Minnesota One-year sample (2012/13–2017/18 Cohorts);
171,778 students

73.10

80.30

Yes

-10
 
 

Enrollment in a four-year college within one year

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Minnesota One-year sample (2012/13–2017/18 Cohorts);
171,778 students

44.80

61.40

Yes

-16
 
 
Earnings outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Annual earnings during year 2 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

2 Years

Minnesota Two-year sample (2012/13–2016/17 cohorts);
142,726 students

8136.69

6319.63

Yes

 
 
9
 
More Outcomes

Annual earnings during year 2 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

2 Years

Indiana Two-year sample (2013/14–2016/17 cohorts);
106,692 students

6212.01

4485.78

Yes

--
 
Show Supplemental Findings

Annual earnings during year 4 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

4 Years

Indiana Four-year sample (2013/14–2014/15 cohorts) ;
44,938 students

10776.39

7708.17

Yes

 
 
9

Annual earnings during year 3 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

3 Years

Minnesota Three-year sample (2012/13–2015/16 cohorts) ;
114,126 students

9847.55

7438.02

Yes

 
 
9

Annual earnings during year 1 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Indiana One-year sample (2013/14–2017/18 cohorts);
135,090 students

3954.59

2812.94

Yes

 
 
7

Annual earnings during year 3 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

3 Years

Indiana Three-year sample (2013/14–2015/16 cohorts);
73,626 students

8474.30

6229.94

Yes

 
 
7

Annual earnings during year 4 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

4 Years

Minnesota Four-year sample (2012/13–2014/15 cohorts) ;
85,076 students

11204.86

8880.88

Yes

 
 
7

Annual earnings during year 5 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

5 Years

Indiana Five-year sample (2013/14 cohort);
20,678 students

13693.46

11062.80

Yes

 
 
6

Annual earnings during year 5 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

5 Years

Minnesota Five-year sample (2012/13–2013/14 cohorts);
55,438 students

14261.10

12724.68

Yes

 
 
4

Annual earnings during year 1 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Minnesota One-year sample (2012/13–2017/18 Cohorts);
171,778 students

5651.31

4299.56

Yes

 
 
1
Employment outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Employment during year 2 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

2 Years

Indiana Two-year sample (2013/14–2016/17 cohorts);
106,692 students

41.90

38.20

Yes

 
 
4
 
More Outcomes

Employment during year 2 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

2 Years

Minnesota Two-year sample (2012/13–2016/17 cohorts);
142,726 students

84.00

81.90

Yes

 
 
4
 
Show Supplemental Findings

Employment during year 4 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

4 Years

Indiana Four-year sample (2013/14–2014/15 cohorts) ;
44,938 students

49.70

44.80

Yes

 
 
5

Employment during year 3 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

3 Years

Minnesota Three-year sample (2012/13–2015/16 cohorts) ;
114,126 students

80.70

76.90

Yes

 
 
5

Employment during year 4 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

4 Years

Minnesota Four-year sample (2012/13–2014/15 cohorts) ;
85,076 students

78.10

74.30

Yes

 
 
5

Employment during year 5 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

5 Years

Minnesota Five-year sample (2012/13–2013/14 cohorts);
55,438 students

77.20

73.10

Yes

 
 
5

Employment during year 1 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Indiana One-year sample (2013/14–2017/18 cohorts);
135,090 students

36.70

32.60

Yes

 
 
4

Employment during year 3 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

3 Years

Indiana Three-year sample (2013/14–2015/16 cohorts);
73,626 students

46.40

42.30

Yes

 
 
4

Employment during year 5 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

5 Years

Indiana Five-year sample (2013/14 cohort);
20,678 students

50.90

47.70

Yes

 
 
3

Employment during year 1 after high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Minnesota One-year sample (2012/13–2017/18 Cohorts);
171,778 students

84.10

82.30

Yes

 
 
3
Progressing in college outcomes—Statistically significant negative effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Credits earned within one year of high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Indiana One-year sample (2013/14–2017/18 cohorts);
135,090 students

9.84

10.89

Yes

--
More Outcomes

Credits earned within one year of high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Minnesota One-year sample (2012/13–2017/18 Cohorts);
171,778 students

9.50

10.89

Yes

--
Show Supplemental Findings

Credits earned within three years of high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

3 Years

Indiana Three-year sample (2013/14–2015/16 cohorts);
73,626 students

33.12

34.29

No

--

Credits earned within three years of high school graduation

High school career and technical education course sequence vs. Business as usual

3 Years

Minnesota Three-year sample (2012/13–2015/16 cohorts) ;
114,126 students

28.53

32.84

Yes

--


Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • 4% English language learners

  • Female: 47%
    Male: 53%

  • Rural, Suburban, Urban
    • B
    • A
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • I
    • H
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • P
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • V
    • U
    • T
    • W
    • X
    • Z
    • Y
    • a
    • h
    • i
    • b
    • d
    • e
    • f
    • c
    • g
    • j
    • k
    • l
    • m
    • n
    • o
    • p
    • q
    • r
    • s
    • t
    • u
    • x
    • w
    • y

    Indiana, Minnesota
  • Race
    Other or unknown
    18%
    White
    82%

Setting

The study was conducted in two states, Indiana and Minnesota, with students from the 2013-14 to 2017-18 cohorts of high school graduates in Indiana (135,090 graduates) and the 2012-13 to 2017-18 cohorts of high school graduates in Minnesota (171,778 graduates).

Study sample

The study sample is 82% white, 47% female, 27% eligible for the national school lunch program, 7% receiving special education services, and 4% English learners.

Intervention Group

In both state studies, the intervention condition included high school students who were concentrators, meaning they completed numerous courses in one career and technical education topic area. In Indiana, concentrators completed a minimum of 6 credit hours in these courses. In Minnesota, concentrators were defined as having completed a minimum of 150 hours of instruction.

Comparison Group

The comparison condition within each state included students who completed no career and technical education courses (non-participants) and students took no more than two such courses (samplers).

 

Your export should download shortly as a zip archive.

This download will include data files for study and findings review data and a data dictionary.

Connect With the WWC

loading
back to top