WWC review of this study

Incorporating Strategy Instruction within the Writing Process in the Regular Classroom: Effects on the Writing of Students with and without Learning Disabilities.

Danoff, Barbara; And Others (1993). Journal of Reading Behavior, v25 n3 p295-322. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ472501

  • Single Case Design
    , grades

Reviewed: October 2017

Meets WWC standards with reservations

To view more detailed information about the study findings from this review, please see Self-Regulated Strategy Development Intervention Report (841 KB)

Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • Female: 67%
    Male: 33%

  • Suburban
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The study was conducted in a suburban elementary school located in the northeastern United States. The intervention took place in three general education classrooms, including two fifth-grade classrooms and one fourth-grade classroom, during a period called “writers’ workshop.” The school’s special education teacher took primary responsibility for developing and delivering the lessons included in this study, with back-up provided by the general education classroom teachers. The school had about 370 students, and there were 25 to 28 students in each class.

Study sample

The study sample included two fifth-grade students (one male, one female) and one fourth-grade student (female) who were identified as having learning disabilities (LD) by their school district. Each student had an IQ above 85, with achievement at least one standard deviation below grade level. The fifth graders were White, and the fourth grader was Asian. The study also included experiments for three additional participants who did not have LD. The experiments for these students are not described in this report or included in the ratings of effectiveness.


The SRSD intervention model was used to teach students how to improve their writing skills. The writing and self-regulation strategies used in this study were taught to all students through a series of mini-lessons delivered by the school’s special education teacher. During the SRSD training phase, the teacher introduced a writing strategy to the class and gave them a small chart and a mnemonic device for remembering the seven basic parts of a story. The mnemonic device was ““WWW, What=2, How=2” and asked students to think about the following prompts: “Who are the main characters? When does the story take place? Where does the story take place? What do the main characters want to do? What happens when the main characters try to do it? How does the story end? How do the main characters feel?” Progression through the stages of instruction was criterion-based rather than time-based. The students required a series of nine to 11 mini-lessons to master the strategy and self-regulation procedures. The post-training story probes were administered immediately following SRSD instruction.


The study used a multiple baseline design across students for each outcome. During the baseline condition for each student, teachers taught their classes as usual, and the special education teacher provided instructional assistance to students with disabilities.

Support for implementation

The special education teacher adapted lesson plans from previous studies of SRSD and followed all steps of the SRSD model.

Reviewed: June 2012

Meets WWC standards with reservations

Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Study sample characteristics were not reported.

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