WWC review of this study

Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities To Mindfully Plan When Writing.

Troia, Gary A.; Harris, Karen R.; Graham, Steve (1999). Exceptional Children, v65 n2 p235-52. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ579491

  • Single Case Design
    , grade

Reviewed: October 2017

Meets WWC standards with reservations

To view more detailed information about the study findings from this review, please see Self-Regulated Strategy Development Intervention Report (841 KB)

Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • Female: 33%
    Male: 67%

  • Suburban
  • Race


The study took place in two suburban elementary schools located in the mid-Atlantic United States.

Study sample

The study sample included three students (Luke, Ben, and Leia) from two schools. All three students were in the fifth grade, had an IQ of 101, were from an economically disadvantaged background, spoke English as their primary language, and were identified by their school district as having LD. Luke was a 10-year-old African-American male. Ben was an 11-year-old White male who had been retained in second grade. Leia was an 11-year-old White female who had repeated first grade.


SRSD was used to teach students how to integrate planning strategies into the writing process. Using the SRSD intervention, the instructor modeled how to use three strategies in the first three lessons: goal setting, brainstorming, and organizing. In the first lesson, the instructor prepared a speech and wrote a story while modeling aloud how to use the strategies. The instructor gave students a list of questions to help them identify essential features and the value of the strategies used by the instructor. The second lesson followed the same procedures, but the instructor instead read a chapter and wrote a story, and the third lesson followed the same procedures as the first two lessons, with the instructor planning a trip. In the second and third lessons, the students were asked to compare the strategy usage with earlier lessons. The instructor also introduced the STOP & LIST (Stop, Think of Purpose & List Ideas, Sequence Them) strategies to the students. The fourth and fifth lessons focused on applying the STOP & LIST strategies. In lessons 6 and 7, the students were expected to plan and write stories independently. The seven lessons took three weeks to cover, in 60–90 minute sessions. Post-training story probes were administered immediately following SRSD instruction.


The study used a multiple probe design across participants. During the baseline condition for each student, teachers taught their classes as usual.

Support for implementation

Not reported.

Reviewed: June 2012

Meets WWC standards with reservations

Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Study sample characteristics were not reported.

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