WWC review of this study

The relationship between using Saxon Elementary and Middle School Math and student performance on Georgia statewide assessments.

Resendez, M., & Azin, M. (2005). Jackson, WY: PRES Associates.

  • Quasi-Experimental Design
    , grades
    1-5

Reviewed: April 2017

Does not meet WWC standards


Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Study sample characteristics were not reported.

Reviewed: May 2016



Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Study sample characteristics were not reported.

Reviewed: May 2016



Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Study sample characteristics were not reported.

Reviewed: May 2016



Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Study sample characteristics were not reported.

Reviewed: May 2016



Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Study sample characteristics were not reported.

Reviewed: May 2016



Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Study sample characteristics were not reported.

Reviewed: May 2013

At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards with reservations
General Mathematics Achievement outcomes—Indeterminate effect found for the domain
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT)

Saxon Math vs. Unknown

Posttest

Grade 1;

86.26

85.20

No

--

Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT)

Saxon Math vs. Unknown

Posttest

Grade 2;

88.31

86.86

Yes

--

Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT)

Saxon Math vs. Unknown

Posttest

Grade 3;

86.94

85.93

No

--

Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT)

Saxon Math vs. Unknown

Posttest

Grade 4;

73.92

71.39

Yes

--

Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT)

Saxon Math vs. Unknown

Posttest

Grade 5;

82.46

81.66

Yes

--


Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • Female: 49%
    Male: 51%

  • Rural, Suburban, Urban
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    Georgia
  • Race
    Black
    29%
    White
    61%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic    
    6%
    Not Hispanic or Latino    
    94%

Setting

The schools included in the study were distributed across the state of Georgia and represented a mixture of rural, urban, and suburban communities.

Study sample

Using information provided by the Georgia Department of Education, the study authors identified Georgia schools that used the Saxon Math curricula between 2000 and 2005, as well as schools that did not use Saxon Math but had similar student demographics to those who did. The study sample included students in grades 1–8 in 170 intervention schools and 172 comparison schools. This intervention report focuses only on findings for grades 1–5, because grades 6–8 are outside of the scope of this review. Data for the intervention group came from 85 schools for first grade, 85 schools for second grade, 83 schools for third grade, 79 schools for fourth grade, and 79 schools for fifth grade. Data for the comparison group came from 144 schools for first grade, 144 schools for second grade, 135 schools for third grade, 131 schools for fourth grade, and 129 schools for fifth grade. The authors reported no significant differences in baseline math performance between the Saxon and non-Saxon schools.

Intervention Group

The Saxon Math curricula were used as a core curriculum in the intervention schools. These schools used the version of the Saxon Math program that was appropriate for each grade level. Participating schools had used the program for an average of three years.

Comparison Group

Comparison group schools were selected from among all Georgia schools that did not implement Saxon Math based on propensity score matching methods. Schools were matched based on the their percentages of students who were female, African American, White, Hispanic, Native American, limited English proficient, educationally disadvantaged, migrant, disabled, gifted, and having left school during the prior year. The comparison group schools used a mixture of non-Saxon curricula. Sixty-two percent of the schools in the comparison group used basal math curricula with chapter-based approaches to teaching math. Five percent of the schools used curricula with an investigative approach. The remaining 33% of the schools used curricula that were a mix of basal, investigative, and computer-based approaches. No additional information was provided by the authors about the specific components of the basal, investigative, or computer-based approaches.

Outcome descriptions

Study authors measured outcomes using Georgia’s Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT), which assesses competency in number sense and numeration, geometry and measurement, patterns and relations/algebra, statistics and probability, computation and estimation, and problem solving. The authors note that per state policy, only school-level data could be released. Fourth-grade students were tested in each school year from 1999–2000 to 2004–05. First-grade, second-grade, third-grade, and fifth-grade students were tested in the spring of school years 2001–02, 2003–04, and 2004–05. All posttest scores are from spring 2005. For a more detailed description of this outcome measure, see Appendix B.

Support for implementation

The intervention and comparison schools in the study were all using their curricula as part of business-as-usual operations and did not receive additional implementation support as a part of the study. Therefore, teachers received the training and implementation support normally provided with their school’s curriculum. The study does not provide additional details on implementation support that schools may have received from curricula developers or other parties.

 

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