WWC review of this study

Strategy Instruction in Planning: Effects on the Writing Performance and Behavior of Students with Learning Difficulties.

De La Paz, Susan; Graham, Steve (1997). Exceptional Children, v63 n2 p167-81. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ542671

  • Single Case Design
    , grade

Reviewed: October 2017

Meets WWC standards with reservations

To view more detailed information about the study findings from this review, please see Self-Regulated Strategy Development Intervention Report (841 KB)

Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • Suburban
  • Race


The study took place in two suburban mid-Atlantic elementary schools. The students received the intervention during individual instruction periods.

Study sample

The study sample included three fifth-grade students who received special education services for students with LD. Rand was an 11-year-old African-American student who had an IQ of 64 on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale-III. Elayne was an 11-year-old Caucasian student who had an IQ of 128. Aviendha was a 10-year-old African-American student who had an IQ of 105.


The SRSD intervention model was used to teach students the STOP and DARE writing strategies. For STOP, students were taught to suspend judgment, take a side, organize ideas, and plan as they write. For DARE, students were taught to develop a topic sentence, add supporting ideas, reject possible arguments for the other side, and end with a conclusion. Each session lasted 45–55 minutes. Post-training essay probes were administered immediately following SRSD instruction.


The study used a multiple probe design across participants. Prior to collecting baseline data, teachers had introduced students to the components of a good essay and the importance of advanced planning. During the baseline condition, students wrote essays on select topics without any planning instruction.

Support for implementation

The teacher used scripted lesson plans and a checklist to ensure that all instructional steps were completed.


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